Holy Pilgrimage - Hindu temples in Burma
Shri Kali Temple, Burma
Because the Burmese government persecutes religious minorities, many Hindu festivals are held privately within the temple compounds
Burma , also known as Myanmar MYAHN-mar, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by China, Thailand, India, Laos and Bangladesh. One-third of Burma's total perimeter of 1,930 kilometres (1,200 mi) forms an uninterrupted coastline along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. Its population of over 60 million makes it the world's 24th most populous country and, at 676,578 km2 (261,227 sq mi), it is the world's 40th largest country and the second largest in Southeast Asia . This is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by China, Thailand, India, Laos and Bangladesh.
Nathlaung Kyaung Temple, Burma
The Nathlaung Kyaung Temple (Sanskrit: नथ्लौन्ग क्यौन्ग, literally "shrine confining the spirits") is a Hindu temple dedicated to Vishnu that is located in Bagan, Burma. It is located west of the Thatbyinnyu Temple, and is the only remaining Hindu temple in Bagan. The temple is one of the oldest temples in Bagan, and was built in the 11th century, during the reign of King Anawratha. However, some historians believe the temple may have been built in the 10th century, during the reign of King Nyaung-u Sawrahan (also known as Taungthugyi). The temple was originally built for Hindu Burmese Indians, including merchants and Brahmins. Many structures of the original temple have disappeared, although the main hall remains. Originally, the temple contained statues of the 10 Avatars of Vishnu, including Gautama Buddha; however, today, only seven remain. The temple was isolated and unrepaired for many years, as it was not Buddhist in origin
Nathlaung Kyaung Temple (built c. 931)The Nathlaung Kyaung (or Nat-hlaung-kyaung), located slightly to the west of Thatbyinnyu and inside the old city walls, is the only remaining Hindu temple in Bagan. It was possibly built by legendary King Taungthugyi (r. 931-964) about a century before King Anawrahta (r. 1044-1077) brought Theravada Buddhism to Pagan with the conquest of Thaton. Paul Strachan, however, argues that it may have been built as late as the reign of Awawrahta. It clearly is one of the earliest of the Bagan temples.
The several names given to the temple, as Strachan argues, indicate the religious struggle that ensued between Vaishnavite Hindu ideas and the southern Buddhist tradition that made its appearance with Anawrahta, though there apparently was a tolerance as the temple was not razed. Most Burmese use the name given above, which may be translated as ï¿½Shrine Confining the Devas.ï¿½ To Hindu devotees it was Nat-daw-kyaung, or the ï¿½Shrine of the Sacred Devas.ï¿½ Another version, Nat-hlï¿½-kyaung, or ï¿½Shrine of the Reclining Deva,ï¿½ suggests that perhaps there originally was such a statue inside.
This square temple with steep-rising upper terraces is dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, and was perhaps built by Indian artisans brought into Bagan to work on other temples. Strachan suggests that, since it uses the Pyu brick building tradition followed in Bagan architecture, it was built by indigenous artisans of Bagan. It clearly was the temple of the Indian merchant community and Brahmans in the service of the king and was originally not only a place of worship, but also as a sculpture gallery. Of the original temple complex only the superstructure and main hall remain, as the entry hall and other structures have disappeared. The high mandapa, or plinth or porch that extends from the temple, was the gift of a Malabar Vaishnavite saint in the 13th century; it is the only mandapa in Bagan and originally would have been covered by a wooden hall or awning. Considerable repair was done in 1976, as can be seen in the second story and the sikhara , or upper part of the finial. Originally there were 10 avatars, past and present incarnations of Vishnu, housed in niches in the outer walls; seven survive. In the late nineteenth century a German oil engineer took the large Vishnu figure that was standing on the mythical garuda; it now is in Berlinï¿½s Dahlem Museum.
Nanpaya Temple, Burma
he Nanpaya Temple ; lit. "palace temple") is a Hindu temple located in Myinkaba (a village south of Bagan) in Burma. The temple is adjacent to the Manuha Temple and was built by captive Mon King Manuha. It was built using mud mortar, stone, and brick, and was used as the residence of Manuha. The temple contains intricate carvings of Brahma, and also contains depictions of other Hindu gods. Also, because Manuha was a Mon, there are many figures and symbols of the Mon within the temple, including hinthas.
Om Tat Sat
(My humble salutations to the great devotees , wikisources and Pilgrimage tourist guide for the collection )