Holy Pilgrimage – Temples in Madhya Prades State
Madhya PradeshMadhya Pradesh literally "Central Province"), abbreviated MP, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, and the second largest city.
Nicknamed the "heart of India" due to its geographical location in India, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state in the country by area. With over 75 million inhabitants, it is the sixth largest state in India by population. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest.
The area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain (also known as Avanti) arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanization in the sixth century BCE. Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India, including the Mauryans, the Mughals and the Marathas. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganized and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state with Bhopal as its capital. This state was the largest state of India by area until 2000. In 2000, the Chhattisgarh region was split to create a new state, and Rajasthan became the largest state of India.
Isolated remains of Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited since the Middle Pleistocene era, around 500,000 years ago. Painted pottery dated to the later mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters. Chalcolithic sites belonging to Kayatha culture (2100-1800 BCE) and Malwa culture (1700-1500 BCE) have been discovered in the Western part of the state.
The city of Ujjain arose as a major center in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanization in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti Kingdom and mahajanapada. The area covered by several other ancient kingdoms such as Chedi, Malava, Karusha, Dasarna and Nishada has also been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh.
Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the Maurya empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, and several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial center of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports. The Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.
Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, and their southern neighbours, the Vakatakas. The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states. The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528, ending their expansion. Later, Harsha (c. 590—647) ruled the northern parts of the state.
The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand. The Paramara king Bhoja (c. 1010–1060) was a renowned polymath. The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Gondwana and Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Muslim Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms reemerged, including the Tomara Rajput kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim Sultanate of Malwa, with its capital at Mandu.
The Malwa Sultanate was conquered by the Sultanate of Gujarat in 1531. In the 1540s, most parts of the state fell to Sher Shah Suri, and subsequently to Hemu. Hemu, who had earlier served as the General of the Suri dynasty, operated from the Gwalior Fort during 1553-56. After his defeat in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 to Akbar, most of Madhya Pradesh came under the Mughal rule. Gondwana and Mahakoshal remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy.
The Mughal control weakend considerably after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707. Between 1720 and 1760, the Marathas took control of most of Madhya Pradesh, resulting in the establishment of semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of the Peshwa of Pune: the Holkars of Indore ruled much of Malwa, the Bhonsles of Nagpur dominated Mahakoshal-Gondwana area, while the Scindias of Gwalior controlled the northern parts of the state. Besides these, there were several other small states, including Bhopal, Orchha, and Rewa. The Bhopal state, which paid tribute to both the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad, was founded by Dost Mohammed Khan, a former General in the Mughal army.
After the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the British took control of the entire region. All the sovereign states in the region became princely states of British India, governed by the Central India Agency. The Mahakoshal region became a British province: the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. In 1861, the British merged the Nagpur Province with the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories to form the Central Provinces.
During the 1857 uprising, rebellions happened in the northern parts of the state, led by leaders like Tatya Tope. However, these were crushed by the British and the princes loyal to them. The state witnessed a number of anti-British activities and protests during the Indian independence movement Several notable leaders such as Chandra Shekhar Azad, B. R. Ambedkar, Shankar Dayal Sharma and Atal Bihari Vajpayee were born in what is now Madhya Pradesh.
After the independence of India, Madhya Pradesh was created in 1950 from the former British Central Provinces and Berar and the princely states of Makrai and Chhattisgarh, with Nagpur as the capital of the state. The new states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were formed out of the Central India Agency. In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha, which included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state. Bhopal became the new capital of the state. In November 2000, as part of the Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act, the southeastern portion of the state split off to form the new state of Chhattisgarh
Flora and faunaMadhya Pradesh is home to 9 National Parks, including Bandhavgarh National Park, Kanha National Park, Satpura National Park, Sanjay National Park, Madhav National Park, Van Vihar National Park, Mandla Plant Fossils National Park, Panna National Park, and Pench National Park. There are also a number of natural preserves, including Amarkantak, Bagh Caves, Balaghat, Bori Natural Reserve, Ken Gharial, Ghatigaon, Kuno Palpur, Narwar, Chambal, Kukdeshwar, Narsinghgarh, Nora Dehi, Pachmarhi, Panpatha, Shikarganj, Patalkot and Tamia. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve in Satpura Range and Amarkantak biosphere reserve are two of the 17 biosphere reserves in India.
Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Pench, Panna, and Satpura National Park are managed as project tiger areas. Sardarpur sanctuary in Dhar and Sailana are managed for conservation of kharmor or Lesser Florican. Ghatigaon sanctuary is managed for Great Indian Bustard or Son Chiriya. The National Chambal Sanctuary is managed for conservation of gharial and mugger, River dolphin, smooth-coated otter and a number of turtle species. Ken-gharial and Son-gharial sanctuaries are managed for conservation of gharial and mugger. Barasingha is the state animal and Dudhraj is the state bird of Madhya Pradesh.
Based on composition, the teak and sal forests are the important forest formations in the state. Bamboo-bearing areas are widely distributed in the state.
RiversThe Narmada is the longest river in Madhya Pradesh. It flows westward through a rift valley, with the Vindhya ranges sprawling along its northern bank and the Satpura range of mountains along the southern. Its tributaries sinclude the Banjar, the Tawa, the Machna, the Denwa and the Sonbhardra rivers. The Tapti River runs parallel to Narmada, and also flows through a rift valley. The Narmada–Tapti systems carry and enormous volume of water and provide drainage for almost a quarter of the land area of Madhya Pradesh.
The Vindhyas form the southern boundary of the Ganges basin, with the western part of the Ganges basin draining into the Yamuna and the eastern part directly into the Ganges itself. All the rivers, which drain into the Ganges, flow from south to north, with the Chambal, Shipra, Kali Sindh, Parbati, Kuno, Sind, Betwa, Dhasan and Ken rivers being the main tributaries of the Yamuna. The land drained by these rivers is agriculturally rich, with the natural vegetation largely consisting of grass and dry deciduous forest types, largely thorny. The eastern part of the Ganges basin consists of the Son, the Tons and the Rihand Rivers. Son, which arises in the Maikal hills around Amarkantak, is the largest tributary that goes into the Ganges on the south bank and that does not arise from the Himalayas. Son and its tributaries contribute the bulk of the monsoon flow into the Ganges, because the north bank tributaries are all snow fed. The forests in their basins are much richer than the thorn forests of the northwestern part of Madhya Pradesh.
The Satpuras, in the Gawilgarh and Mahadeo Hills, also contain a watershed, which is south facing. The Wainganga, the Wardha, the Pench, the Kanhan and Penganga rivers, discharge an enormous volume of water into the Godavari river system. The Godavari basin consists of sub-tropical, semi-moist forests, mainly in the valley of the Indrawati. There are many important multi-state irrigation projects in development, including the Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects.
LanguagesThe predominant language of the region is Hindi. In addition to standard Hindi, several regional variants are spoken, which are considered by some to be dialects of Hindi, and by others to be distinct but related languages. Among these languages are Malvi in Malwa, Nimadi in Nimar, Bundeli in Bundelkhand, and Bagheli in Bagelkhand and the southeast. Each of these languages or dialects has dialects of its own. Other languages include Telugu, Bhilodi (Bhili), Gondi, Korku, Kalto (Nahali), and Nihali (Nahali), all spoken by tribal groups. Due to the historical rule of the Marathas, Marathi is spoken by a substantial number of people. Gujarati is spoken by a large number of people due to the state's proximity to Gujarat.
CulturThree sites in Madhya Pradesh have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO: the Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986) including Devi Jagadambi temple, Rewa, Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989) and the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003). Other architecturally significant or scenic sites include Ajaigarh, Amarkantak, Asirgarh, Bandhavgarh, Bawangaja, Bhopal, Chanderi, Chitrakuta, Dhar, Gwalior, Indore, Burhanpur, Maheshwar, Mandleshwar, Mandu, Omkareshwar, Orchha, Pachmarhi, Shivpuri, Sonagiri, Mandla and Ujjain. MP being very large geographically, and the history being spread over several millennia, developing a comprehensive picture of heritage and architecture is a monumental task.
Madhya Pradesh is noted for its classical and folk music. Some of the noted Hindustani classical music gharanas in Madhya Pradesh include the Maihar gharana, the Gwalior gharana and Senia gharana. Two of the medieval India's most noted singers, Tansen and Baiju Bawra, were born near Gwalior in present-day Madhya Pradesh. Noted Dhrupad exponents Aminuddin Dagar (Indore), Gundecha Brothers (Ujjain) and Uday Bhawalkar (Ujjain) were also born in present-day Madhya Pradesh. The birthplaces of noted playback singers Kishore Kumar (Khandwa) and Lata Mangeshkar (Indore) are also located in MP. The local styles of folk singing include Faga, Bhartahari, Sanja geet, Bhopa, Kalbelia, Bhat/Bhand/Charan, Vasdeva, Videsia, Kalgi Turra, Nirgunia, Alha, Pandwani Gayan and Garba Garbi Govalan.
The major folk dances of MP are Badhai, Rai, Saira, Jawara, Sher, Akhara, Shaitan, baredi, karma, kathi, Sua, Saila, Mauni, Dhimrai, kanara, Bhagoria, Dashera, dadariya, Duldul Ghodi, Lehgi ghodi, Fefriya, Mandlya, danda, Ada-khada, dadel, Matki, birha, Ahirai, pardhauni, Vilma, Dadar and Kalsa
TransportationBus and train services cover most of Madhya Pradesh. The 99,043 km long road network of the state includes 18 national highways. A 4,948 km long rail network criss-crosses the state, with Jabalpur serving as headquarters for the West Central Railway Zone of the Indian Railways. The Central Railway and the Western Railway also cover parts of the state. The state has a total of 20 major railway junctions. The major inter-state bus terminals are located in Bhopal, Indore, Gwalior and Jabalpur. More than 2000 buses are conducted daily from these four cities. The intra-city transit systems mostly consist of buses, private autos and taxis.
The state does not have a coastline. Most of the sea trade happens through the Kandla and Jawaharlal Nehru Port (Nhava Sheva) in the neighboring states, which are well-connected to MP by road and rail networks.
There are five airports in the state: Devi Ahilyabai Holkar International Airport in Indore (the busiest), Raja Bhoj International Airport in Bhopal, Jabalpur Airport, Gwalior Airport and Khajuraho Airport. Besides, minor air strips are located at Ujjain, Khandwa, Satna and Rewa.
Temples in Madhya Pradesh
Adhyatma Niketan, Madhya Pradesh
The land was purchased by Huzur Malik Saheb Sant Yogi ManSingh ji in 1961 for the sum of Rs. 12,000 /- in order to establish an ashram. When Swami Vishnu Tirth Ji Maharaj visited Gwalior on April 11, 1961, the place was inaugurated and named 'Adhyatma Niketan'
It is spread over 2.5 acres (10,000 m2) of land at the foot-hill of Gwalior Fort. The rear part of Adhyatma Niketan is used as a residence by Sant Kripal Singh Ji Maharaj, and his family members and the front part is donated to the trust called 'Adhyatmic Shikshan and Sadhana Kendra'.
The Ashram has one big and spacious auditorium which is used for satsang, spiritual discourses, bhajan, kundalini awakening and shaktipat initiation etc., especially on the occasions of the Ashram's various festivals, when a large number of devotees gather there. On the eastern side lies the samadhin of Huzur Malik Saheb. The samadhi has sufficient space inside to accommodate around 200-250 devotees at a time for worship and meditation. Various kinds of stones including white marble have been used.
Satsang at Adhyatma NiketanSatsang at Adhyatma Niketan has assumed the greatest significance. It is understood that the disciple or sadhaka gains maximum spiritual benefit through satsang with the least effort. The only requirement is attention, devotion and concentration with full faith. Lord Krishna says to Udhav:
“I am not attracted so much by the practice of Yoga, by the study of sankhya, by recitation of Vedas, by the performance of penances, by renunciation, by acts, lofty sacrifices, charity and public utility , by atma, by worship of Devas, and recitation of sacred mantras, by visiting sacred places of pilgrimages, and by rules of restraint and religious observance as by the company of the good.” Here the company of the good means satsang."
It is proved beyond doubt that the regular practice of satsang works wonders and is sufficient to purge the worldly-minded person in whom evil and vicious Sanskars are deep-rooted. One is not required to undergo any sort of practical or technical training or practice, or any rigorous or strict yogic drill. It is more than sufficient if one sits at the feet of the Guru or meditates with full concentration or listens to spiritual discourses and chantings of shabdas with rapt attention.
It may be mentioned here that during the course of satsang or practicing meditation very often disciples and devotees, especially when Sant Kripal Singh Ji is present, experience some sort of sensation or automatic movement of the limbs or body, which is known as ‘Kriya’. Many newcomers or beginners feel that the automatic movement of body or ‘Kriya’ is a must because it signifies the descent of spiritual energy on the body-matter of the disciple. But in some cases ‘Kriya’ does not take place. This is because the individual is not limited to his physical body, and it undergoes the process of spiritualization. Then the beginner’s inner consciousness starts experiencing some exquisite change inside without any kriya.
This comparison is hypothetical, but it may help beginners understand the concept of spiritual transformation. Let us presume the Guru, the only visible source of spiritual energy, to be a power-house, i.e. the main source of power. The disciples or devotees who want the light of spiritual energy to be bestowed on them have to make all possible efforts to have the grace of the Guru, who, when pleased, will connect the ‘chitta’ (mind-stuff) of the disciple with the main source. Thus, chitta is lit up. In day to day life, we notice that the smooth flow of electricity takes place only through good conductors, and when there is some obstruction or resistance, the light flickers and sparkling take place. In a most similar manner, when the disciple is struck by a current of spiritual power flowing from the siddha Guru, he experiences penetration of the energy. Because his sanskars create obstruction in any smooth flow, a sort of sparkling takes place and the limbs of the body are set to automatic movement or ‘Kriya’. The disciples are advised not to check their movement or motion of body, rather the body should be set free or loosened to attune itself to the ecstatic state of mind of inner consciousness.
Thus the basic purpose of the regular and meticulous routine to practice satsang gradually is to develop a tendency of detachment from matter or worldliness.
The Satsang at Adhyatma Niketan is practised in three parts. First in the morning with the dawn, the recitation of DHUN is practiced. DHUN is a continuous recitation of holy names. After that, the morning satsang starts at 11:30 am on weekdays & at 11:00am on sunday. This continues upto 1:30 pm on weekdays & upto 2:00 pm on sunday, in which the disciples practice meditation, bhajans (devotional songs),recital of 'shabda' and 'vachans' and pravachan of Huzur Maharaj ji sant Kripal singh Ji. In evening, satsang starts at 6:30 pm in winter and at 7:00 pm in summer with the recital of ‘shabda’ composed by Huzur Malik sahib and other great saints. Spiritual anecdotes and biographies of spiritual saints are also read aloud. All this helps devotees in their concentration of mind and in building their inner consciousness. Religious discourses are also given by Sant Kripal Singh Ji, who also answers the various queries of the disciples.
Bateshwar, Morena, MPBateshwar (Hindi:बटेश्वर), 25 km from Morena town, is an archaeological site comprising about 200 ancient shrines in Morena district in Madhya Pradesh. This site is located on the north-western slope of a range of hills near Padavali, a village about 30 km from Gwalior. The shrines of Bateshwar temple-complex are dedicated mostly to Shiva and a few to Vishnu. The temples are made of sandstone and belong to the 8-10th century CE. They were built during the reign of Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty, 300 years before Khajuraho temples were built.
The cluster of temples is spread over an area of 10 hectares in the ravines of Chambal. The Archaeological Survey of India team led by K.K. Muhammed started excavation works in 2005. which are still continuing. Presently sites of Padavali or Padawli and Mitaoli are being excavated, where one temple each has been discovered till now. A temple cluster at Dodamath in the same place is also being excavated. The ravages of time and earthquakes had destroyed these forgotten temples.
Beejamandal, MPBeejamandal is a ruined temple in Jatkara village near Khajuraho, that has not yet been fully excaved and explored. . It has a length of 34.60 meters and is thus longer than the largest temple of Khajuraho namely Kandariya which measures about 30 metres.
Beejamandal is also the name for a ruined temple in Vidisha.
'Beejamandal' at Khajuraho is near the Chaturbhuj temple. It was opened to visitors in 1999
In all there are supposed to be 85 temples in Khajuraho,however only 22 of them have been unearthed. Beejamandal is one of the many which are yet to be discovered. According to the local villagers this structure was under a huge mound of earth which was marked on the apex by a white stone. The villagers regularly lit the holy oil-lamp each night on this mound since time imemorial.
Cunningham and Phanikanta Mishra regard this as the Vaidyanath temple mentioned in the Grahapati Kokkala inscription.
It was one of the 18 unexplored mounds in the vicinity of Khajuraho . The archaeological survey of India does has not been the authority to excavate other mounds.
Bijasan mata mandir indore, MPBijasan is one of the temples of the Hindu goddess Durga, situated in Indore District of Madhya Pradesh, India. Here a hillock (tekri) has a small temple of Bijasen Mata, built in 1920. Mela is held here during Navaratri. This place is 2 minutes drive from the airport and about 9 km from the railway station. From this hill, one gets a magnificent view of the sunset and a breathtaking view of city at night. Perched on top of the hill was a guest house of the Holkars, now converted into a Border Security Force Arms Museum. Surrounding area is being developed into gardens with a small lake. Ma BIJASAN is KUlDEVI of Hindu Gadariya(Kukroliya parivar)
Bijasan Mata ka mandir indore sahar ki jaan he. bijasan mata ke mandir se hi indore sahar ki ek alag pehchan bani he. Bijasan mata mandir me indore hi nhi desh videsho se bhi bhakt akar darshan labh lete he. Bijasan mata ka mandir Navratri Me ek alag hi ehsas dilata he. Is samay mandir me Mataji ka Divya Shringar Kiya Jata He.
Chintaman ganesh, MPChintaMan Ganesh or Chintamani ganesh is an ancient holy temple of Lord Ganesha in Ujjain. Chintaman Ganesh is the biggest Ganesh Mandir of Ujjain. It means 'relieving tensions'. As it is the temple of Ganesha, people take the blessings of Ganesh for starting every new venture. This temple is built across the Shipra river on the Fatehabad railway line. The Ganesh idol in this temple is supposed to be Swayambhu - born of itself. Riddhi and Siddhi, the consorts of Ganesha, are seated on either side of Ganesha. It is 5 km. from the Ujjain railway station, one can reach here by public transport, private vehicle or railway.
Dashavatara Temple, Deogarh
Vishnu Temple (often termed Dashavatara Temple) is located at Deogarh in Central India built in c. 500 AD. The temple is one of the earliest Hindu stone temples to still survive today. Built in the Gupta Period (320 to c. 600 AD), Vishnu Temple shows the ornate and beauty seen in Gupta style architecture. This temple is also a good resource for examining Gupta style sculptures and art.Many of these early Hindu stone temples were dedicated to a single Hindu deity. The temple at Deogarh is dedicated to the Vishnu. These temples made in the early part of the 6th century of the Gupta Period housed images and symbols of Hindu gods. These temples allowed people to make contact with the gods they were worshiping. The Temple was built out of stone and brick consisting of a single cubical sanctum that sheltered the images within. Statuaries of the Vishnu were both sculpted in the interior and exterior walls of the temple. The temple’s affiliation with the deity Vishnu can be seen by looking at the statuary of the deity seated on a coiled serpent seat that decorates the carved doorway into the temple There are also many sculpted panels showing the myths and tales connected with Vishnu.
Vishnu Temple is a great example of early Gupta architecture. The style and organization of the structure was the method for the decoration of many Hindu temples seen around India at the time. Though it is in poor condition, having a damaged tower, the temple still exudes the ornate decorations and structural complexity created back in the early 6th century.
According to Lubotsky, this temple was the prototype for the sarvatobhadra temple described in Vishnudharmottara Purana
HistoryThe "Gupta Temple", dedicated to god Vishnu, was first discovered by Captain Charles Strahan. It was given its name by the archaeologist, Cunnigham. Archaeologists have inferred that it is the earliest known Panchayatana temple in North India. It was subsequently renamed by Cunningham as Dashavatara Mandir or Dashavatara Temple (because the temple depicts ten incarnations of Vishnu), and also as Sagar Marh (meaning: the temple by the well).
ArchitectureIt was the first North Indian temple with a shikhara or tower, although the shikhara is curtailed and part of it has disappeared (details as to when the shikara disappeared are not reported). The temple has a high plinth and is set with a basement porch. The Dashavatara temple has a "compelling presence" in spite of its dilapidated condition.
The ancient treatise Vishnudharmottara Purana describes several temples including a "Sarvatobhadra temple", which has been compared by archaeologists and Indologists with the Dashavatara Temple (Vishnu temple) or the Gupta Mandir of Deogarh. A comparative study revealed that the ideal temple design described in the treatise as "Sarvatobhadra temple" was the same as the Vishnu temple of Deogarh. This conclusion was based on plan, size, iconography and several other norms described for building Hindu temples. Based on this comparison, the structural details of the Deogarh temple have been inferred. Maps have also been drawn of the temple structure. The probable date of the temple's construction has been estimated to be between 450 and 650. During this period, the temple was highly venerated.
The temple faces west, with slight deviation to the south that enables the setting sun's rays to fall on the main idol in the temple. The plinth measures 55.5 feet (16.9 m), about 9 feet (2.7 m) above the bottom step (called the moon stone) of the shrine. In the nine squares layout, the Vishnu temple is in the middle square. Four stairways outside the platform provide access to the temple. However, as per excavation details, combined with the two small shrines with the central shrine seen now, the layout of the temple has been interpreted to represent a typical Panchayatana style of the temples of North India. The total height of the shrine based on isometric projections is about 45 feet (14 m) Provision of porches has not been corroborated but some analogous comparison with the Varaha temple (boar incarnation of Vishnu) in the fort precincts, which belonged to the same period, suggests the existence of porticoes even in the Vishnu temple. Further, a later date Kuriya Bira temple about 2 miles (3.2 km) to the south of the Vishnu temple, has been cited to substantiate that this temple had a mandapa around a small shikara shrine
When complete, this building was unquestionably one of rare merit in the correct ordering of its parts, all alike serving the purpose of practical utility, yet imbued with supreme artistic feeling. Few monuments can show such a high level of workmanship, combined with a ripeness and rich refinement in its sculptural effect as the Gupta temple at Deogarh.
Reconstructions ProposedCunningham had originally proposed a reconstruction of the temple with four columns on each side supporting a portico and a shikhara topped by an amalaka. However Vats and Imig have proposed that it was a panchayatana temple. Imig compared a number of temples from the region and from other regions from similar period, and concluded that the garbhagriha (sanctum) cell was surrounded by a wall forming an ambulatory.
Sculpted panels are seen on the terraced basement, with carved figurines of river goddesses Ganga and Yamuna flanking the doorway to the sanctum sanctorum. In addition, on the side walls, three large carved panels of Vaishnava mythology related to Gajendra Moksha, the Nara Narayana Tapasya (meditation), and the Sheshashayi Vishnu (reclining on the serpent), are portrayed. A protective wall made of undressed stone was built around the temple after it was first discovered. However, the idol of the sanctum sanctorum of the temple is missing, believed to have been relocated elsewhere
In the unique and large sculpture of Sheshashayi Vishnu, Vishnu is depicted reclining on the serpent Shesha, with four-arms lying down on the spiral of a serpent with seven hoods, forming a shade over his crowned head. Lakshmi (Vishnu's consort), along with her two attendants, are at Vishnu's feet. Other gods and celestials are seen watching this display. In another panel below this, two demons, Madhu and Kaitabha, are getting ready to attack. They are shown to be repulsed by the four personified weapons or ayudhapurushas of Vishnu According to another interpretation, the lower panel depicts the five Pandavas and their common wife Draupadi.
The relief on the doorway (Lalatabhimba in Sanskrit) of the temple depicts Vishnu seated on Shesha the serpent, with Lakshmi sitting down and caressing his feet, flanked by two incarnations of Vishnu: Narasimha (the man-lion form) on the right, and Vamana (the dwarf form) on the left.
The side and back walls of the temple depict carved panels related to several facets of Lord Vishnu's life. On the northern wall, the elegantly carved panel shows "Gajendra Moksha", which represents Vishnu coming to the rescue of the Gajendra (elephant). On the eastern side wall, a panel depicts a carved image of the sages Nara-Narayana. On the southern wall, Vishnu is depicted reclining on Shesha the serpent, relaxing or in a sleeping or creative mode. These depictions on the four walls (including entrance) of the temple, represent four facets of Vishnu:
the entrance represents Vasudeva; the Gajendramoksha side is referred as Samkarshana, the destructive aspect of Vishnu; the Nara-Narayana side is known as Pradyumna, the preserving aspect of Vishnu; and the Anantashayana side is known as Aniruddha.
Another unique sculpture found in the Vishnu temple depicts the Krishna legend in which Devaki hands over her new born son Krishna to her husband Vasudeva. This sculpture is said to be one of the best depictions of Gupta period art, based on the sensuous and graceful modelling of the figurines, but different in that its clothes are shown draped in an exclusive fashion. It is now housed at the National Museum in New Delhi
Deogarh (Hindi: देओगढ़) is a small farming village near the town of Lalitpur in Lalitpur district, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Located at the border with the former princely state of Gwalior, which is now part of Madhya Pradesh, it is known for its Gupta monuments, located on and near the hill fort on the right bank of the Betwa River.
Devi Jagadambi Temple, MPDevi Jagadambika temple or Jagadambika temple of a group of about 25 temples at Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India. Khajuraho is a World Heritage site.
The temples of Khajuraho were built by the rulers of the Chandella dynasty between the 10th and the 12th centuries.
Devi Jagadambika temple, in a group to the north, is one of the most finely decorated temples at Khajuraho, with numerous erotic carvings. Three bands of carvings encircle the body of the temple. In the sanctum is an enormous image of the goddess Dev
Dharmrajeshwar (Hindi: धर्मराजेश्वर) is an ancient Buddhist and Hindu cave temple site of 4th-5th Century in Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh, India. It is an example of Indian rock-cut architecture, situated in Garoth tahsil of Mandsaur district at a distance of 4 km from Chandwasa town and 106 km from Mandsaur city. Nearest railway station is Shamgarh about 22 km. Its original name is Dhamnār (धमनार).
Dharmarajeshwara templeIt has the 9th century monolithic temple of Dharmarajeshwara, carving it out of solid natural rock. The temple is carved out of a rock of size 50 metre in length, 20 metre in width and 9 metre deep. It has a sanctum with a Sabhamandapa and porch. The spire of the shrine is in the north Indian style. The architecture of Dharmarajesvara temple can be compared with Kailash Temple of Ellora. There is a big temple in the middle 14.53 metre in length and 10 metre in width. Around the main temple there are seven small temples. There is a big Shivalinga in the main temple along with a statue of Vishnu. Engraved on the entrance gate are figures of Vishnu and Lakshami. There are statues of Bhairava, Kali, Shiva, Garuda and Parvati. The temple seems to be devoted to both Shiva and Vishnu.
A grand fair is organized at Dharmrajeshwar temple on the occasion of Shivaratri every year when large number of people gather from the nearby areas.
The town Chandwasa itself also contains an old medieval temple which was later on destroyed and converted into a patchwork mosque, its door-frame finding place in the Museum at Indore.
Rock-cut caves DhamnarThe most important and interesting monuments at Dhamnar are the Rock cut caves and temples. They are cut into the coarse laterite rock of the southern hill. There is a series of fourteen the 7th century rock-cut Buddhist Caves with monasteries and Stupas, cut in a hill called Chandanagiri in ancient times and giving its name to the neighbouring town of Chandwasa (Chandanavasa).
Later these were visited by Alexander Cunningham, Ferguson and Henry Kajins who disagreed with Tod. Dr Ferguson counted number of caves to be 60-70. Alexander Cunningham was also in agreement with Dr Ferguson. Ferguson considers the period of construction of caves from 408-475 AD.
The important caves at Dhamnar are as under:
- Badi kachahari - Cave number 6 is known by the name of Badi kachahari. There is a grand mandapa on four pillars in the cave. chatya is in the back. Badi kachahari is a large chaitya hall with pillared portion in front enclosed by a stone railing.
- Chhoti kachahari - Cave number 8 is known by the name of Chhoti kachahari.
- Kamini mahal or Rajlok - Cave number 11 is known by the name of Kamini mahal or Rajlok.
- Bhim Bazar - Cave number 1 is known by the name of Bhim Bazar. it is the largest of Dhanmar caves. It consists of an open porch or vrandah with a copule of rooms in the rear.the rectangular court has a chaitya in the centre enclosed on three sides by rows of small cells each side having a smaller chapel in the central cell. The sculptures include seated Buddhas.
- Hathi bandhi - Cave number 12 is known by the name of Hathi bandhi.
Om Tat Sat
(My humble salutations to the great devotees , wikisources and Pilgrimage tourist guide for the collection )