Holy Pilgrimage – Temples in Jharkhand State
Jharkhand (Hindi: झारखण्ड; Urdu: جھاڑکھنڈ; Jhārkhaṇḍ, is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,714 km2 Or 30,778 sq mi (79,710 km2). The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka is sub capital while Jamshedpur is the largest and the biggest industrial city of the state. Some of the other major cities and industrial centres are Dhanbad, Bokaro and Hazaribagh.
The name "Jharkhand" means "The Land of Forests"
HistoryAccording to some writers like Gautam Kumar Bera, there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire. Bera's book (page 33) also refers to the Hindu Mythological book Bhavishya Purana. The tribal rulers, some of whom continue to thrive till today were known as the Munda Rajas, who basically had ownership rights to large farmlands. During the Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara.
British ruleAfter the year 1765, it came under the control of the British Empire and became formally known under its present title, "Jharkhand"—the Land of "Jungles" (forests) and "Jharis" (bushes). Located on Chhota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Parganas, the place has evergreen forests, rolling hills and rocky plateaus with many places of keen beauty like Lodh Falls.
The subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. Almost one hundred years before Indian Rebellion of 1857, adivasis of Jharkhand were already beginning what would become a series of repeated revolts against the British colonial rule:
The period of revolts of the Adivasis to protect their Jharkhand land took place from 1771 to 1900 AD. The first ever revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi, a Santhal leader in Santal tribal belt in 1771. He wanted to liberate his people from the clutches of the unscrupulous landlords and restore the lands of their ancestors. The British government sent its troops and crushed the uprisings of Tilka Manjhi. Soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum, now in West Bengal. This was followed by the Chero tribes unrest in Palamau. They revolted against the British rule in 1800 AD. Hardly seven years later in 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their big landlord of Srinagar west of Gumla. Soon the uprisings spread around Gumla. The tribal uprisings spread eastward to neighbouring Tamar areas of the Munda tribes. They too rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. The Hos in Singhbhum were growing restless and came out in open revolt in 1820 and fought against the landlords and the British troops for two years. This is called the Larka Kol Risings 1820–1821. Then came the great Kol Risings of 1832. This was the first biggest tribal revolt that greatly upset the British administration in Jharkhand. It was caused by an attempt by the Zamindars to oust the tribal peasants from their hereditary possessions. The Santhal rebellion broke out in 1855 under the leadership of two brothers Sidhu and Kanhu. They fought bitterly against the British troops but finally they too were crashed down. Other notable Adivasi warriors are Jabra Paharia, Veer Budhu Bhagat, Poto Sardar, Telenga Kharia, Phulo-Jhano, Maki Munda, Gaya Munda.
Jharkhand—a separate stateThe state of Jharkhand became a functioning reality on 15 November 2000 after almost half a century of people's movements around Jharkhandi identity, which disadvantaged societal groups articulated to augment political resources and influence the policy process in their favour. Its the 28th state of India. The Jharkhandi identity and the demand for autonomy was not premised solely on the uniqueness of its tribal cultural heritage but was essentially a fallout of the failure of development policy to intervene in socio-economic conditions of the adivasis and non-adivasis in the region.
GeographyMost of the state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered by forest. Forest preserves support populations of tigers and Asian Elephants.
Soil content of Jharkhand state mainly consist of soil formed from disintegration of rocks and stones, and soil composition is further divided into:
2. Micacious soil (containing particles of mica), found in Koderma, Jhumri Telaiya, Barkagaon, and areas around the Mandar hill
3. Sandy soil, generally found in Hazaribagh and Dhanbad
4. Black soil, found in Rajmahal area
5. Laterite soil, found in western part of Ranchi, Palamu, and parts of Santhal Parganas and Singhbhum
ClimateThere are three well-defined seasons in Jharkhand. The cold-weather season, from November to February, is the most pleasant part of the year. High temperatures in Ranchi in December usually rise from about 50 °F (10 °C) into the low 70s F (low 20s C) daily. The hot-weather season lasts from March to mid-June. May, the hottest month, is characterized by daily high temperatures in the upper 90s F (about 37 °C) and low temperatures in the mid-70s F (mid-20s C). Maximum rainfall takes place during the months from July to September that accounts for more than 90% of total rainfall in the state
Flora and faunaJharkhand has a rich variety of flora and fauna. The National Parks and the Zoological Gardens located in the state of Jharkhand present a panorama of this variety.
Betla National Park in the Latehar district, located 8 km away from Barwadih, covers an area of about 250 square kilometres (97 sq mi). The national park has a large variety of wildlife, including tigers, elephants, bisons (which are locally known as gaurs), sambhars, wild boar, and pythons (up to 20 feet (6.1 m) long), spotted deer(chitals), rabbits and foxes. The mammalian fauna to be seen at Betla National Park also include langurs, rhesus monkeys, blue bulls and wild boars. The lesser mammals are the porcupines, hares, wild cats, honey badgers, Malabar giant squirrels, mongooses, wolves, antelopes etc. In 1974, the park was declared a Project Tiger Reserve.
Part of the reason for the variety and diversity of flora and fauna found in Jharkhand state may be accredited to the Palamau Tiger Reserves under the Project Tiger. This reserve is abode to hundreds of species of flora and fauna, as indicated within brackets: mammals (39), snakes (8), lizards (4), fish (6), insects (21), birds (170), seed bearing plants and trees (97), shrubs and herbs (46), climbers, parasites and semi-parasites (25), and grasses and bamboos (17).
The Hazaribag Wildlife Sanctuary, with scenic beauties, 135 kilometres (84 mi) away from Ranchi, is set in an ecosystem very similar to Betla National Park of Palamu.
Jawaharlal Nehru Zoological Garden in Bokaro Steel City is the largest Zoological Garden in Jharkhand. It has many animal and bird species, spread over 200 acres (0.81 km2), including an artificial waterpark with boating facilities. Another zoo, Birsa Munda Jaiwik Udyan, is also located about 16 km from Ranchi, and a number of mammalian fauna have been collected there for visitors
CultureBeing a tribe dominated state, nature has been given utmost importance in every sphere of life and culture. Branches of sacred trees are brought and ceremonially planted in the courtyards. Devotees then worship these tree parts associated with gods/goddesses. Karma puja, Jitia Puja, Sarhul are a few examples. Poush Mela or Tusu Fair is a significant occasion celebrated during the Makar Sankranti wherein brightly coloured excellently decorated symbolic artefacts of folk deity are carried by the People. This is a folk harvesting festival. Tusu is a folk belief, not about any God or Goddess, but about a sweet little girl of the tribal folk. The festival takes place as new crops are harvested. The entire festival is a very colourful one. It takes the shape of the all-around festive mood of the tribal people, where everyone takes part.
Jharkhand has a concentration of some of the country’s highly industrialised cities such as Jamshedpur, Ranchi, Bokaro Steel City, Dhanbad and Ramgarh. It also has several firsts in India, including:
- Largest fertiliser factory of its time in India (since shut down) at Sindri, Dhanbad
- First Iron & steel factory at Jamshedpur
- Largest Steel plant in Asia, Bokaro steel plant, Bokaro.
- Biggest explosives factory at Gomia, Bokaro.
- Tata Steel has established country’s first coal washery at Ghato, Ramgarh in the year 1951.
- First methane gas well at Parbatpur, Bokaro.
Deoghar is the headquarters city of Deoghar District in the Santhal Parganas division of the state of Jharkhand, India. It is an important Hindu pilgrimage centre, having in Baidyanath Temple one of the twelve Shiva Jyothirlingams in India and also one of the 51 Shakti Peethas in India
Origin of nameDeoghar is a Hindi word and the literal meaning of 'Deoghar' is abode ('ghar') of the Gods and Goddesses ('dev'). Deoghar is also known as "Baidyanath Dham", "Baba Dham", "B. Deoghar". The origin of Baidyanathdham is lost in antiquity. It has been referred as Haritakivan, Ketakivan, etc., in Sanskrit Texts. The name Deoghar seems to be of recent origin and probably dates from erection of the great temple of Lord Baidyanath. Although, the name of the builder of the temple is not traceable, certain parts of the front portion of the temple are said to have been built by Puran Mal, an ancestor of the Maharaja of Giddhour, in 1596.
GeographyDeoghar has a picturesque location. To the north of the town there is a wood called baba Jungle after a fakir; to the north-west is a low wooded hill called Nandan Pahar; and to the east about 10 miles away there is a low range of hills known as Trikuti or Trikutaparvata. There are a number of small hills to the south-east, south and southwest. There are two rivulets Yamunajor and Dharua near the town. The countryside around Deoghar has an attractive set-up with undulations, water courses and small hills.
The climate is dry and congenial and Deoghar is still considered a health resort in spite of the great congestion particularly due to the temple of Vaidyanath (also spelled Baidyanath), as well as having the criminal and civil courts and a large number of Government establishments.
The nearest railway station is Baidyanathdham. Jasidih Junction is about 7 km from Baidyanathdham railway station, which is on the main line of Howrah-Delhi route of Indian railway. It is about 229 km from Patna (capital of Bihar) and 322 km from Ranchi (capital of Jharkhand) and about 315 km from Kolkata (capital of West Bengal). there is a sub city called Rohini near Deoghar well known for independence stuggle.
TransportDeoghar is well-connected with Ranchi, Patna, Calcutta and all nearby major cities by road.
Deoghar is an important railway station on Jasidih–Dumka–Rampurhat railway line, 6 km from Jasidih junction. A railway line from Jasidih to Deoghar has existed for a long time due to the importance of Deoghar as a religious place and a railway station (called Vaidyanathdham or Baidynathdham Deoghar railway station) has existed inside the Deoghar town. The station is connected with Ranchi by a daily express train. This railway line could not be extended through inhabited area. Therefore a new railway line has been built from Jasidih and the new Deoghar railway station has been built north of the Deoghar town.
Two railway lines branch out from this new Deoghar railway station. The railway line to Dumka goes east from Deoghar and will connect with Rampurhat, perhaps in 2014. It has been completed up to Sikaripara. The new line from Deoghar to Sultanganj goes towards the north and will connect with Sultanganj railway station on the Kiul-Jamalpur-Bhagalpur railway line. The Deoghar–Sultanganj railway line has been completed up to Chandan railway station. A daily passenger train runs from Jasidih to Chandan.
Religious SignificanceDeoghar also known as Baidyanath Dham is an important Hindu pilgrimage. It is one of the twelve jyotirlingas, and also one of the 51 shaktipeeths and is famous for the mela of Shrawan 4th month according to the Hindu calendar system. It is the only place in India where the jyotirlinga and the saktipeeth are together. They lay side by side. Each year between July and August (on the eve of the month of Shraavana) about 7 to 8 million devotees come from various part of India to offer holy water from the Ganges at Sultangunj; almost 108 km from Deoghar to present it to Shiva. An unbroken line of people in saffron-dyed clothes stretches over the full 108 km for the month.
The temple  of Baidyanath or Shiva is the most important of all the temples in the courtyard. The temple faces the east and is a plain stone structure with a pyramidal tower, 72 feet tall.
The top contains three ascending shaped gold vessels that are compactly set, and were donated by the Maharaja of Giddhaur. Besides these pitcher shaped vessels, there is a Punchsula (Five knives in Tridenta shape), which is rare. In the inner top there is an eight pettaled lotus jewel called Chandrakanta Mani.
The lingam installed inside, is of a cylindrical forming about 5 inches in diameter and projects about 4 inches from the centre of a large slab of basalt. It is not possible to ascertain how much of the lingam is buried. The top is broken and has uneven surface.
There are different porches in the temple. One porch leads to the cell where the lingam is fixed. The second porch is in front with a row of pillars spanned by blocks of basalt and on the right side there is a sandstone image of nandi.
There are bells fixed in the ceiling and pilgrims are supposed to pull the bell ropes to announce their approach to the divinity.
To the east of the northern verandah of the temple there is a large masonry vat into which flows the water and milk offered to the lingam. The liquid in it is essentially a mix of milk, sandal paste and washing of flowers, which impart to it a fragrant smell and is treated as highly sacred.
Places of interest in/around Deoghar
- Nandan Pahar - This is a small hill edging the town which hosts a famous Nandi Temple. It has been beautifully maintained by the local administration and speaks volume about the beauty of this place. This hill faces the famous Shiv temple. The Nandan pahar has a huge park for children. It also has a ghost house, a boot house, a mirror house and a restaurant.
- Basukinath (in Dumka Dist) - It is famous for its Shiva Temple, and the pilgrimage to Babadham is considered incomplete without paying homage at Basukinath. It is situated 43 km from Deoghar near the village of Jarmundi and connected by road. It is an indigenous temple bearing local art.
- Naulakha Mandir - It is situated 1.5 km away from Baba Baidyanath Temple. It is a nice visiting spot. This temple looks like the temple of Ramakrishna in Belur. Inside it there are idols of Radha - Krishna. Its height is 146 feet. The amount spent in construction of the temple was about Rs. 900,000 (9 lakhs). Hence it became known as Naulakha Temple.
- Rama Krishna Mission - a boarding school run by monks of RK Mission. The campus is full of greenery and has 12 football fields. The Ramkrishna Mission Vidyapith, a branch of Ramkrishna Mission, Belur Math, Howrah district, was established in 1922 with the objective of imparting modern education combined with the values of our ancient culture in the lines of the ancient Gurukula.
- Satsanga Ashram - A holy place for devotees of Thakur Anukulchandra. In the south-west of Deoghar there is a big Ashram established by Anukul Chandra which is called Satsang Ashram.On 24 september 2012 Twelve people died & fifty people injured by careless management by satsang committee which call Satsanga Deoghar disaster
- Tapovan - Situated 10 km from Deoghar. There is a temple of Shiva which is the centre of attraction for pilgrims. The temple of Shiva is called Taponath Mahadeva. A number of caves are found in this hill. In one of the caves, a Shiva lingam is installed. It is said that Sage Valmiki came here for penance. Sri Sri Balananda Brahmachari obtained Siddhi (success through penance) here.
- Rikhia Ashram - This Bihar School of Yoga (Sri Sri Panch Dashanam Paramhansa Alakhbarah) was established by Swami Satyananda Saraswati. Thousand of devotees from different corners of the world participate in a fair an annual festival and ceremony which is held in late November to early December. Foreigners are seen often in the town, especially between November and February. This ashram is indeed a sacred place and its charitable deeds greatly benefits the welfare of the local villages.
- Shivganga - Situated just 200 meters away from Baidyanath Temple. When Ravana was taking the lingam to Lanka, he felt the urge for urination. He handed over the lingam to a Brahmin and went for urintation. After urination, he needed to wash his hands and be purified before holding the lingam. When he did not find any water source nearby, he made a blow with his fist on the earth and water came out and formed a pond. This pond is now known as Shivaganga.
- Harila Jori - Harila Jori is situated in the northern side of Deoghar, 8 km away from Baidyanath temple and 5 km away from Tower chowk. During ancient times, the area was full of Haritaki (Myrobalan) trees. This was the place where Ravana handed over the lingam to lord Visnu disguised as a Brahmin, and went for urination. A stream flows here and is known as Ravana Jori.
- Trikuth Parvat - It is situated 13 km away from Deoghar on the way to Dumka. There are three main peaks on the hill which is why it is called Trikutachal. The height of this hill is 1,350 feet (400 m). There is also a temple of Shiva at this place known as Trikutachal Mahadeva Temple. It is the mouth of river Mayurakshi. Here we also find an altar of the goddess of Trishuli. It is an attractive place with a cool stream flowing. Now here operates the Jharkhand's first ropeway built by Damodar Ropeway & Construction Company, Kolkata.On the height of 1000 ft. there is an Ashram named "TRIKUTACHAL ASHRAM". This Ashram now has been one of the most power ful spiritual place in all over India even in abroad also.To know its significants one has to go back in the year 1900. Param Pujya SRI SRI SWAMI SAMPADANANDA GURUMAHARAJ was the founder of this Trikutachal Ashram. Sri Sri Swami Sampadananda (Yadav Chndra Chakravorty) pet name used in home was born in 1899 in ROSHAN GIRI a remote area in Bangladesh.Early childhood he lost his mother and reared by his step mother.On the observation of his uncle Ramesh Chandara Chakravorty, he started his education.After getting 1st class marks in Matric Examination,he was admitted in college.After completing graduation his ambition was for higher degree, but destiny was not with him, his uncle Ramesh Chndra took his last breath and all burden fell on his shoulder.Yadav Chandra decided to be established through job.He searched for job. At that time British Gov.was ruling India. Yadav Chndra aspired to get admitted in Customs Deptt. there was a vacancy in Custom Deptt. Mr. clayton took an interview but yadav chandra told thoroughly the Bible. Mr. Clayton was astonished that how could this Indian boy hold this tremendous power to read Bible in such a manner. Mr. Clayton granted the job by promoting him as a Customs Accessor. Yadav Chandra did his duty very honestly and was transferred in Calcutta.He came in Calcutta from Bangladesh leaving his mother lonely in village, but he would always send money to his mother and get news from villagers. As I have told you Yadav Chandra did his duty very honestly his daily routine was from office to home. After coming home from office he always engrossed himself in sacred religious books to burn the light of spiritual quest. He was not satisfied in monotonous life in material world. He often attended Religious Assemblies to hear Spiritual Preachers. He would aspire to take initiation from Sri Ramkrishna Paramhansa in dream. He was not interested in job and wanted to enter a new life i.e. the outer life of material world. He resigned the service and went door to door in quest of spiritual satisfaction. Finally, he went to a Mandir near Deoghar now called "LILA MANDIR" The Ashram of LORD DAYANADA DEVA. He saw a Yogi was meditating by laping white ashes all over his body under a tree. As Yadav Chndra came close to HIM a type of electric power got into his body, Yadav became unconscious. After some time when he got in normal condition saw his Idle deity Sri Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa appear in the form of Lord DayaNanda Deva. His soul realised that Sri Ramakrisha was reborn as Dayananda Deva. Yadav Chndra took sannyas Diksha from Thakur and was advised to go to Trikut Parvat for long meditation.
- Mother Bhakti Prava Devi – A Divine Flame of Trikutachal Ashram and NUN of this Ashram is Sri Sri Maa. Sri Sri Maa Bhakti Prava Devi & his Sannyas Disciple Sri Sri Chndan Swami are running the Trikut Ashram. Sri Sri Maa former name was Rama Chandra was born in Calcutta in 1937 16 December.In 1952 Rama came with her parents in Deghar and meet Swami Sampadananda at Trikut Ashram. In 1977 Rama left home and stay in Trikut Ashram permanently. Sri Swami Sampadananda gave Sanyasini Diksha to Rama.Baba gave her name as Bhakti Prava.Sri Si Maa Bhakti Prava Devi is at the age of 74.Almost 500 people from all over the country took Diksha. Mother knows no caste, different cast of people come every day at Ashram to bow down Mother. Whatever she bless be fruitful.Mother remain always in different world, a world of deep thought, always see the omnipotent in her visible eyes.Mother dislike to answer futile questions of visitors. Trikutachal Ashram has no demand regarding donation, demand only purity and honesty from visitors. Sri Sri Chandan Swami came at Trikutachal Ashram in 1987 after passing away Sri Sampadananda. On that time Mother was alone in vast Trikut Hill. She got feared that being a lady how she would stay at Asram
Now TRIKUTACHAL ASHRAM is the heart of Spiritual thoughts & divine culture.
- Koiridih- A historical place near river side has an English time rest house with thousands of teak wood forest beautiful mountain view which is surrounded by Dighariya forest and a nice dam is coming. This village had a famous Ghandian freedom fighter name Late Ayodhya Prasad Singh. The High School of koiridih produced a number of skills students.
- Prabhu Jagadbandhu Ashrama - It is situated 4 km away from Deoghar on the way to Tapovan, near Charki Pahari crossing. The ashrama houses a stone-temple of Prabhu Jagadbandhu, a religious preacher born at a hamlet called Dahapara of Murshidabad, Bengal. Even a single night's stay at this small but beautifully flowery and green ashrama located within a pristine landscape can provide solace and tranquility to the city tourists.
- J.A.P 05 Camp (Dahijor Camp) - It is situated 9 km away from Deoghar on the way to dumka or Bahgalpur road, There is a beautiful Shiv temple (Shakti Nath Mandir) in front of J.A.P 05 main gate. That place surrounded by mountain and very greenery. You will find lots or play ground over there like football, basketball, handball, hokey, kabaddi, volleyball. this camp established in 1975.
- Ram Nivas Ashram: In this ashram Sri Sri Balananda Brahmachari Maharaj, a great yogi and guru used to stay and meditate. His disciple and the 2nd Mohanta (Head) of the ashram, Mohanananda Brahmachari also stayed in this place. This ashram, surrounded by trees and gardens has temples of Tripura Sundari, Radha- Krishna, and Bhagbati Devi. A memorial temple has also been created at this place where the ashes of Sri Mohanananda Brahmachari were put to rest.
- Jalsar Children Park: In this park, there are a lot of fun rides set up for children. There are dozens of amusing rides, including see-saw, toy train...etc.
- Maa Kali Shaktipeeth: it is in karnibagh area.the locality also called as maa kali nagar. deity maa is in the form of pindi,peoples of that area have great faith on her
More about the placeBest place of tourist interest: Trikuti parvat(hill). It has the only vertical ropeway of the state of Jharkhand. The ride from the base camp to the summit takes about seven minutes. The view from the top is scenic and picturesque. Local inhabitants claim that a forest fire some years back killed the animals inhabiting the jungles around Trikuti hill. Today the place has a large population of the Gray langur
Vaidyanath Jyotirlinga, Deogarh (Jharkhand)Baidyanath Jyotirlinga temple, also known as Baba dham and Baidyanath dham is one of the twelve Jyotirlingas, the most sacred abodes of Shiva. It is located in Deoghar in the Santhal Parganas division of the state of Jharkhand, India. It is a temple complex consisting of the main temple of Baba Baidyanath, where the Jyotirlinga is installed, and 21 other temples.
According to Hindu beliefs, the demon king Ravana worshipped Shiva at the current site of the temple to get the boons that he later used to wreak havoc in the world. Ravana offered his ten heads one after the another to Shiva as a sacrifice. Pleased with this, Shiva descended to earth and cured Ravana who was injured. As he acted as a doctor, he is referred to as Vaidhya ("doctor"). From this aspect of Shiva, the temple derives its name.
Difficulty in identifying location of Baidyanath Jyotirlinga'Baidyanatham chithabhoomau' [sivmahapuran kotirudra samhita 1/21-24] is the ancient verse that identifies location of vaidyanth jyotirlinga. According to which Baidyantham is in 'chidabhoomi', which is the ancient name of Deoghar. While, the same part of text has variation by which, verse is 'paralyam vaidyanatham', i.e., Vaidyanatham is in Parli, Maharashtra.
Thus the three temples of,
- Baiydanath temple at Deoghar, Jharkhand,
- Vaijnath temple at Parli, Maharashtra and
- Baijnath temple at Baijnath, Himachal Pradesh are claiming their shrines as 'real' jyotirlinga of Vaidyanath.
Poorvothare prajwalika nidhane
sada vasantham girija sametham
srivaidyanatham thamaham namami
This states that Vaidyanath jyotirlinga is located at Prajwalika nidhanam (meaning funeral place i.e., chithabhoomi) in the North-Eastern part of the country. Deoghar is far located in east compared to Parli which is in west central part of the country. Also Chidabhoomi indicates that, in olden days, this was a funeral place, where corpses are burnt and post-death ceremonies were performed. This place could have been a centre of tantric cults like Kapalika/Bhairava where Lord Shiva is worshipped significantly as smasan vasin (meaning, residing in crematorium), sava bhasma bhushita (meaning, smearing body with ashes of burnt bodies).
Interestingly, the same shrine of Vaidyanath is considered as on of 51 Shakti Peethas, where 'yoni peetham' of jyotirlinga itself is considered as the Shakti Peetha.
JyotirlingaAs per Shiv Mahapuran, once Brahma (the Hindu God of creation) and Vishnu (the Hindu God of saving) had an argument in terms of supremacy of creation. To test them, Shiva pierced the three worlds as a huge endless pillar of light, the jyotirlinga. Vishnu and Brahma split their ways to downwards and upwards respectively to find the end of the light in either directions. Brahma lied that he found out the end, while Vishnu conceded his defeat. Shiva appeared as a second pillar of light and cursed Brahma that he would have no place in ceremonies while Vishnu would be worshipped till the end of eternity. The jyotirlinga is the supreme partless reality, out of which Shiva partly appears. The jyothirlinga shrines, thus are places where Shiva appeared as a fiery column of light. Originally there were believed to be 64 jyothirlingas while 12 of them are considered to be very auspicious and holy. Each of the twelve jyothirlinga sites take the name of the presiding deity - each considered different manifestation of Shiva. At all these sites, the primary image is lingam representing the beginningless and endless Stambha pillar, symbolizing the infinite nature of Shiva. The twelve jyothirlinga are Somnath in Gujarat, Mallikarjuna at Srisailam in Andra Pradesh, Mahakaleswar at Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh, Omkareshwar in Madhya Pradesh, Kedarnath in Himalayas, Bhimashankar in Maharastra, Viswanath at Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, Triambakeshwar in Maharastra, Vaidyanath at Deogarh in Jharkand, Nageswar at Dwarka in Gujarat, Rameshwar at Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu and Grishneshwar at Aurangabad in Maharastra
LegendAccording to the stories narrated in the Shiva Purana, it was in the Treta yuga that the demon Ravana, king of Lanka, felt that his capital would not be perfect and free from enemies unless Mahadeva (Shiva) stays there forever. He paid continuous meditation to Mahadeva. Ultimately Shiva got pleased and permitted him to carry his lingam with him to Lanka. Mahadeva advised him not to place or transfer this lingam to anyone. There should not be a break in his journey to Lanka. If he deposits the lingam anywhere on the earth, in the course of his journey, it would remain fixed at that place forever. Ravana was happy as he was taking his return journey to Lanka.
The other gods objected to this plan; if Shiva went to Lanka with Ravana, then Ravana would become invincible and his evil and anti-vedic deeds would threaten the world.
On his way back from Mount Kailash, it was time for Ravana to perform sandya-vandana and he could not carry out sandya-vandha with Shiva linga in his hand and therefore searched for someone who could hold it for him. Ganesha then appeared as a sheperd who was rearing sheeps nearby. Ravana requested Ganesha pretending as shepherd to hold the linga while he completes sandya-vandana and also guided him not to place the linga on ground at any movement. Ganesh warned Ravana about leaving the linga on the bank of the river and walking away if he doesnot return soon. Ganesha, pretending to be vexed by Ravena's delay, set the linga down on earth. The moment linga was kept down, it got fixed to the ground. When Ravana after returning from sandya-vandana tried to move the linga, but he could not. Ravan failed miserably in his attempt to uproot the linga. The Gods were happy with Shiva linga not reaching Ravana's place.
Shravan MelaMore than a million pilgrims visit this shrine every year. It is famous for the mela of Shraavana (a month of the Hindu calendar), between July and August. About 7 to 8 million devotees visit the place from various parts of India and offer holy water of Ganges to the deity collected from Sultangunj, which is almost 105 km from Deoghar. An unbroken line of people in saffron-dyed clothes stretches over the full 104 km for the month. The pilgrims are called Dak Bam and they do not stop even once in their journey from Sultangunj, located near Bhagalpur to Vaidyanath. Pilgrims to the temple later visit the Basukinath temple
well connected by road, rail and air. Rail is the
easiest way to reach to Deoghar, as the nearest station Jasidih (JSME) is
located at Delhi-Howra main line.
Almost every train halts at Jasidih, which is about 7km from Deoghar.
Travel to DeogharDeoghar (also known as Babadham or Baidyanath Dham) is located in north-eastern part of Jharkhand. It is well connected to rest of the India by rail. Road transport is also a good option to reach to Deoghar, however less buses are available from major cities. One has to get their on vehicle if they want to use Road transport.
RailwayNearest Railway station is Baidyanath Dham, which is a branch line from Jasidih. At present, only one express trains originate from Baidyanath Dham (BDME) station, which is Baidyanath Dham-Ranchi Intercity express in the morning at 5am.
Rest of the train which starts from Baidyanath Dham are EMUs (local train).
Jasidih is the main station for Deoghar/Baidyanath Dham and is about 7 km from Deoghar. Jasidih is situated on Howra-Patna-Delhi main line. All the trains are having their stopage at Jasidih.
Reservation counters are available at Jasidih Staion and Baidyanath Dham Station. Alternatively, train tickets can also be reserved at Head Post-Office, which is very near to Tower chowk.
Railway Time-table : Jasidih | Baidyanath Dham | Deoghar
Ranchi to Deoghar by Train
Patna to Deoghar by Train
Kolkata to Deoghar by Train
Delhi to Deoghar by Train
Jasidih to Deoghar by Train
AirNearest airport is Patna (230km from Deoghar), which is well connected with rest of the country. Nowadays, many low cost carrier are providing services from the major city of India to Patna. Once you reach Patna, get a train to Jasidih.
Kolkata is also a good option for Air travel. It is about 340 km from Jasidih. Frequent flights are available from most of the cities. Also several trains are available from there to Jasidih.
Another near airport to Deoghar is Ranchi Airport, which is also having regular flight from the major city of India.
However connectivity from Ranchi to Deoghar by train, is not as good as that of Patna and Kolkata. Their are only two express trains, which connects Ranchi to Deoghar. If you book get a flight so that you can avail train to Deoghar, its good. Else chose Patna or Kolkata route.
Bus: Road TransportRegular direct bus services are available from Bhagalpur, Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Gaya.
From Jasidih to DeogharShared Trekkers (very similar to Jeep) or shared auto-rickshaw are available from Jasidih to Deoghar. These shared trekker accomodated 14-20 people and charge a fair of about Rs 12/- each person.
One can also avail the facility of booked auto rickshaw or cars from Jasidih to Deoghar. These booked Auto Rickshaw will charge you from Rs 60 to Rs 100 and they are unmetered vehicles and you will have to negotiate with them before you avail their transportation.
Local Transport in DeogharCycle Rickshaw is most used mode of transport in Deoghar. Auto rickshaws and hired cars are also available. You can easily hire Cars/Auto Rickshaw near to Tower Chowk. Cycle Rickshaw can be hired from any location. Tanga is also an attraction for tourist. It is a cart, pulled by a horse. Tanga can be booked from Tower Chowk.
Basukinath Temple, JharkhandBasukinath is a city and a notified area in Dumka district in the Indian state of Jharkhand.
ReligionBasukinath serves as a place of pilgrimage for Hindus. The Basukinath Temple is a popular attraction.
Basukinath is famous for the mela of Shraavana (a month of the Hindu calendar), between July and August. Many devotees visit the place from various parts of India and offer holy water of Ganges to the deity collected from Sultangunj, Bhagalpur district in Bihar, which is almost 135 km from Basukinath. An unbroken line of people in saffron-dyed clothes stretches over the path between Bhagalpur and Basukinath is seen during the fair. Whether Some pilgrims are called "Bol Bam" they put the holy water on the shivling after 4–5 days journey. They can stop many places during the journey. While some pilgrims which are called Dak Bam and they do not stop even once in their journey from Bhagalpur to Basukinath. The pilgrims to Basukinath later visit the Vaidyanath Jyotirlinga in Deogarh
TransportDumka is a small town, it is connected with road to the neighboring city. However in July 2011 Dumka is connected with newly built Jasidih - Dumka railway line. Since then city has seen a goring number of three Wheeler on road. Although there is an ongoing work on new railway line, which is connect Dumka to Bhagalpur (Bihar) and Rampurhat (west Bangal) in coming years.
But Buses are the preferred mode of transport and are run by both government agencies and private operators.Dumka has good connectivity to it neighboring district with buses.There is luxury night bus service between Dumka - Ranchi and Kolkata.
Baba Basukinath DhamBasukinath is located in Dumka District of Jharkhand. It lies on the Deoghar – Dumka state highway and is around 25 km northwest of Dumka. It is a place of pilgrimage for Hindus. Basukinath Temple is the main attraction here.It is situated on Jasidih Dumka New Railway line and Basukinath Railway Station is the nearest railheads. Ranchi Airport is the nearest airport. It is situated at Jarmundi Block on Dumka Deoghar State Highway at a distance of 24 km from the Distrcit Headquarters Dumka. In a year lacs and lacs people from different parts of country come here to worship Lord Shiva. In the month of Shravan people of several country also come here to worship Lord Shiva.
Om Tat Sat
(My humble salutations to the great devotees , wikisources and Pilgrimage tourist guide for the collection )