Holy Pilgrimage – Temples in Karnataka State
Kadri Manjunath Temple, Mangalore
The Kadri Manjunatha Temple located in Mangalore in the state of Karnataka, India, dates back to approximately 1068 The square temple built with nine water tanks, nestles at the foot of the highest hill at Kadri in Mangalore.The chief deity of this temple is Manjunatha. There is a shiv ling on him. There is also a ( Thri-Lokeshwara statue made of bronze. This statue of Lokeshwara in the seated position with three faces and six arms is tipped to be the best bronze statue in India It is about 1.6m tall.
The temple is a neat middle sized structure with a pyramid-shaped roof. The temple, as the inscription indicates, may have been built in the 10th or 11th century, as evidenced by the installation of the Lokeshwara statue in the 968. The Balipitha in front of the temple also gives us an almost definite period going back to 10th century. Within the temple premises to the west is the temple of Goddess Durga, and to the north the temple of Lord Ganesha.
HistoryThe earliest reference to it is in the epigraph dated 968 on this statue. It mentions that King Kundavarma Bupendra of the Alupas lineage, caused the Lokeshwara statue to be installed in Kadarika Vihara. Kadarika is the earliest name of the place, Buddhism took shelter at Kadri mutt till the 10th century. Hence the name Kadri. In one of the Vijayanagara epigraphs, the name Kadali can be come across.
There are some stone caves on top of the hill. The idol of thri lokeshwarnath of the temple is said to be the oldest of the South Indian temples. The seven sacred ponds, Jogi Mutt and cave of Pandavas are the pilgrim attractions here.
Gomukha and water tanksThere is a natural spring at an elevated location at the back of the temple. It is called Gomukha. The water from this spring is let into 9 ponds of different sizes adjacent to it. People visiting the temple wash themselves in these ponds before entering the main temple
Mangalore's location makes it accessible via all forms of transport. Transport systems in Mangalore include private buses, KSRTC buses, trains, taxis and autorickshaws.
Rail connectivity in Mangalore was established in 1907. Mangalore was also the starting point of India's longest rail route. The city has two railway stations—Mangalore Central (at Hampankatta) and Mangalore Junction (at Kankanadi). A metre gauge railway track, built through the Western Ghats, connects Mangalore with Hassan. The broad gauge track connecting Mangalore to Bangalore via Hassan was opened to freight traffic in May 2006 and passenger traffic in December 2007. Mangalore is also connected to Chennai through the Southern Railway and to Mumbai via the Konkan Railway
Kaitabheshvara Temple, Kubatur, Karnataka
The Kaitabheshvara temple (also spelt Kaitabhesvara or Kaitabheshwara) is located in the town of Kubatur (also spelt Kubattur or Kuppatur, and called Kuntalanagara or Kotipura in ancient inscriptions), near Anavatti in the Shimoga district of Karnataka state, India. The temple was constructed during the reign of Hoysala King Vinayaditya around 1100 AD. The Hoysala ruling family was during this time a powerful feudatory of the imperial Western Chalukya Empire ruled by King Vikramaditya VI. According to the Archaeological Survey of India, the architectural signature of the temple is mainly "Chalukyan". Art historian Adam Hardy classifies the style involved in the construction of the temple as "Later Chalukya, non mainstream, far end of spectrum". The building material used is soapstone The temple is protected as a monument of national importance by the Archaeological Survey of India
Temple planThe temple has a single square shaped shrine (garbhagriha) with an east-west orientation, a vestibule that connects the sanctum (cella or vimana) to the main large open hall (mukhamantapa) that has a staggerd square plan and can be entered from five sides; two lateral and one each in the north, south and east. The walls of the shrine and vestibule stand on a base (adisthana) that is composed of five moldings. The superstructure over the sanctum is four-tiered (chatustala arpita). It is crowned by a large domed roof that looks like a "helmet" (amalaka) and whose shape follows the shape of the shrine (square in this case). The "helmet" is the largest sculptural piece in the temple, it is beautifully carved and well decorated. Atop the dome is a beautiful water-pot like stone structure (kalasha) that forms the pinnacle of the tower. In case of those temples where the original pinnacle is lost, a metallic structure is normally used as a replacement. The tower over the vestibule (sukanasi or "nose), which is actually a protrusion of the main tower, faces east
Sculptures and decoration
The sculptural motifs and friezes, the decorative articulation, the shape of superstructure (sikhara) and the design of pillars in this temple are those commonly found in other Western Chalukyan temples. On the outer walls of the shrine and vestibule are pilasters of two types; full length pilasters that reach up to the heavy though inconspicuous eaves, and half length pilasters that support miniature decorative towers (Aedicula) of various kinds (such as latina and bhumija). The sculptures of Mahishamardini ( a form of the Hindu goddess Durga, Bhairava ( a form of the god Shiva), and Ganesha can be found on the main tower. The base of the outerwall of the open hall (mukhamandapa) has decorative motifs, pilasters surmounted by miniature decorative pyramidal shaped turrets with gargoyle faced (kirtimukha) scrolls. The seating area in the hall (kakshasana) is treated with floral decorations. The pillars of the mandapa are characteristically circular, polished and lathe-turned, with those pillars that are mounted on a platform (jagati) being fluted and shorter in height. The ceilings are ornate and the typical Hoysala style parapet over the eaves has sculptural representations of Ugra Narasimha, Varaha (the boar, an incarnation of the god Vishnu), Garuda (the eagle) and Keshava (a form of the god Krishna). The doorjamb at the entrance to the vestibule and sanctum are typically ornate and Hoysala in character, with the lintel displaying a sculpture of "Gajalakshmi" (the Hindu goddess Lakshmi with elephants on either side).
RAILWAY STATION : Shimoga
BUS STATION : Anavatti
Kalaseshwara Temple, Kalasa, Karnataka
Kalasa (Kannada: ಕಳಸ) is a holy temple-town located in Chikkamagaluru district in Karnataka. Kalasa is home to the Kalaseshwara Temple dedicated to Lord Shiva. Kalasa lies 92 Kilometres South-west of Chickmagalur and is located on the banks of the Bhadra River.
Origins and EtymologyThe origins of Kalasa are traceable to Mythology. Although unsubstantiated, local myths attribute the origin of Kalasa to an event mentioned found in the Skanda Purana.
Accordingly, the wedding of Lord Shiva and Parvathi in Himalayas caused a shift in the Earth's rotation because of the attendance of all Gods and Goddesses. To restore the Earth's balance, Lord Shiva requested Sage Agasthya to travel South. Agasthya however, expressed his wish to witness the wedding. Lord Shiva assured to grant divine vision to the sage, which would enable him to witness the wedding from any part of the world.
Agasthya travelled southward and resided in Kalasa from where he watched the wedding. Local legends state that a pilgrimage to Kalasa brings greater religious merit (punya) than a visit to Varanasi.
The Girija Kalyana (marriage of Lord Shiva and Parvathi) is celebrated in Kalasa every year to commemorate this tradition. This auspicious occasion falls on Karthika Shuddha Ekadashi of Lunar calendar.
Other legends also state that Sage Vasishta had lived in a hermitage near Kalasa as also the Skanda Dwaya
EtymologyThe word Kalasa is a corruption of the Sanskrit root, Kalasha, which means a waterpot or jug. In the context of Hindu temple architecture, every temple should have a round pinnacle placed at the top, known as the Kalasha.
Geographically, Kalasa is surrounded by the Bhadra river on three sides with the Duggappana Katte hill at the South. Viewed from an altitude, the town resembles a pot, hence the name. The Kalaseshwara temple is located at the base of this hill.
CharacteristicsKalasa is chiefly a temple town, and a tourist spot. It is considered a place of pilgrimage by most visitors who arrive in Kalasa to offer their prayers in the Kalaseshwara, and other temples. A typical trip includes visiting Sringeri, Kalasa, and Horanadu, all in the same day.
Kalasa largely has an agricultural economy and heavily depends on the Bhadra river to meet its water needs. Chief produces include a variety of spices, Coffee, and Ayurvedic medicine. Situated in the heart of the Western Ghats, Kalasa enjoys a pleasant climate throughout the year although summers are slightly hot.
Tourist PlacesThe nearest airport is Mangalore International Airport formerly known as Bajpe airport at Mangalore which 110 Kilometere away from Kalasa. Although Kalasa is pilgrimage spot, it abounds in several tourist attractions such as water spots and of late, private resorts.
TemplesThe Kalaseshwara temple is the chief temple of the town. It is currently managed by the Government of Karnataka. Kalasa is notable for these temples:
- Kalaseshwara Temple
- Girijamba Temple
- Hanuman Temple
- Venkataramana Temple
- Ranjal Mahalakshmi Temple
- Vasishta Ashrama
- Shree Chandranatha Swamy Temple
Side View of the Kalaseshwara Temple from inside the temple premises
Pancha TheerthasKalasa contains five major water spots, within an approximate distance of 8 Kilometres from the town. Together, these are known as Pancha Theerthas (literally, Five Sacred Waters). Each Theertha is associated with a myth drawn mostly from the Hindu Mythology. People offer worship at these Theerthas as part of their pilgrimage to Kalasa.
- Vasishta Theertha--Named after Sage Vasishta
- Naga Theertha--Named in honour of the Snake God, attributable to Lord Shiva.it is believed bathing here will remove Nagashapa/Nagadosha.
- Koti Theertha--To signify koti Devatha stayed here during first Girja Kalyana celebrated to please Aghsthya.
- Rudra Theertha--Named after Lord Rudra (Shiva)is also called Rudrapada., similar to Vishnupada of Gaya it is believed that offering Pinda during pithru Karya is as auspious to Gaya Shradda
- Amba Theertha-- Named after Goddess Parvati.
- Duggapan Katte-- Peak at which the whole kalasa town can be seen.
FestivalsEach year, Kalasa celebrates several festivals to mark different events. The date for each festival is decided early in the year based on the Hindu Calendar. A typical practice during each festival is to take out the Utsava Murthy (Procession Idol) of a temple in a procession throughout the town and bring it back to the temple.
Kalasa celebrates these festivals every year:
- Girija Kalyana--To celebrate the wedding of Lord Shiva and Parvathi. It starts amavasya to harihara hunnime. kalayana mahosava is performed by three family who came with agastya muni from kasi. The names of three family are hoskere,mavinakere and kunikere.
- Kalasa Car Festival--The annual car festival or the Rathotsava where the Utsava Murthy (Procession Idol) taken in a procession throughout the town.
- Venkataramana Swamy Temple Car Festival--This is similar to the car festival, where the Procession Idol of Venkataramana Swamy is taken out
Bhadra RiverThe Bhadra River (Kannada: ಭದ್ರಾ ನದಿ) is a river in Karnataka state in southern India.
The Bhadra originates at Gangamoola near Kudremukha, Western Ghats range, and flows east across the southern part of Deccan Plateau, joined by its tributaries the Somavahini near Hebbe, Thadabehalla, and Odirayanahalla. It flows through the towns of Kalasa, Horanadu, Balehonnur,Balehole and NR Pura. A Dam is built across the river near Lakkavalli which forms the Bhadra reservoir. From here the river continues its journey through the city of Bhadravathi, Karnataka. The Bhadra meets the Tunga River at Koodli, a small town near Shivamogga. The combined river continues east as the Tungabhadra, a major tributary of the Krishna, which empties into the Bay of Bengal.
Transport to Chickkamagaluru
The nearest airport to this town is Bajpe international airport of Mangalore (160 km). The awaited Chikmagalur Railway line has been completed and a trial run was held on June 17. This railway line will be connecting the city to Kadur .
Kalaghatagi Mahalakshmi Temple, Karnataka
Kalaghatagi also known as Kalghatgi (Kannada: ಕಲಘಟಗಿ ) is a panchayat town in Dharwad district in the Indian state of Karnataka.
Kalaghatagi. Gram devi jatra is famous in kalaghatagi.Benni family is one of the oldest families in kalaghatagi. Currently there are around 100 members in benni family.and it is the most oldest family in Kalghatagi
Surashettikoppais a Famous village of Kalaghatagi where Shree Brahmalingeshwar God jathra will be held, which is Famous in Karnataka
Kalghatagi Mahalakshmi templeKalghatagi has very beautiful Mahalakshmi temple
TamboorTamboor Basavanna temple 11 km from Kalghatagi.
Tamboor is in Kalghatgi Taluk, Dharwad District in North Karnataka, India. It is about 8 km from Kalghatagi. Tamboor is a town about 11 km from Kalghatgi (via Devikoppa) NH 63, 3 km from main road in Karnataka state, India. Tamboor name came to village due to the huge availabilty of copper in earlier years. "Tamra nagar" converted to tamroor and tamboor. Tamboor is located at Western Ghats. Thick forests here hold tigers, chital, elephant, sarang, cobra, and other wildlife. Transport: better to travel in one's own vehicle. Three daily buses and tempose traveling via Devikoppa from Kalghatgi, Hubli, Dharwad and Yellapur. Nearest places: Kalghatgi, Dharwad, Hubli and Yellapur. Other local areas of interest include Tamboor Lake, Satoo Shahid Durga, Kali River, Anashi Reserve Forest, Supa Dam. Basavanna temple
Tamboor is an important center of pilgrimage for people of the Lingayat faith. The Temple of Basavanna, one of the most revered saints of the Lingayat faith lies here. In the 12th century, the Chalukyas and Gangas ruled there. The Tamboor jathre or congregations attracts pilgrims from all over Karnataka as one of the major community or `panchamsali lingayaths' are large number devoted here visiting regularly. Tamboor (Tambur) Basavanna temple is situated 11 km from Kalghatgi, at the end of Devikoppa Forest.
Kalikamba Temple, MangaloreSri Kalikamba Vinayaka Temple is located in Lower Car Street, Mangalore, India.
The temple is mainly revered by the Vishwakarma Brahmana community (people involved in the goldsmith, blacksmith, carpentry and architecture businesses).
The temple underwent major renovation the year 2000. The Garbhagrihas of Lord Ganesh and Goddess Kalikamba were rebuilt with granite
DeitiesThis following deities are worshipped in this temple.
- Sri Vinayaka (Lord Ganesh)
- Sri Kalikamba (Goddess Kali)
- Sri Vishwakarma (Lord of architecture)
- Sri Vasuki ( There is a small Nagabana within the premises)
- Vasantha Mantapa
GurumathaWithin the temple premises, there is a math in the name of Sri Nagalinga Guru (popularly known as Ayya Guru). It is known as Gurumutt.
FestivalsUgadi is the main festival celebrated here. It is celebrated over 10 days with grandeur along with a lot of cultural activities.
Special Poojas are also performed during the months of Shravana and Bhadrapada
Social servicesEvery 5 years, the temple also conducts Samoohika Upananyana (Mass thread ceremony) for poor vishwakarma Brahmins living in the Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts.
A Sri Kalikamba Seva Samiti committee volunteers for many social service activities.
There is a Vishwakarma Sahakara Bank (previously known as S K Goldsmith cooperative society) which mainly caters to the needs of the Vishwakarma community apart from others.
There are several trusts associated with the temple which encourage education among Vishwakarma students by offering scholarships for brilliant students and monetary help for poor students, from primary school to higher education
Kalleshvara Temple, Ambali, Karnataka
The Kalleshvara temple (also spelt Kalleshwara or Kallesvara) is located in the town of Ambali in Bellary district of Karnataka state, India. According to an Old Kannada inscription (dated 1083 A.D.) placed in the sabhamantapa (lit, "gathering hall"), the temple was constructed during the reign of the Western Chalukya Empire King Vikramaditya VI (also called Tribhuvana Malla). This temple is protected as a monument of national importance by the Archaeological Survey of India.
Temple planThe temple which faces east comprises a sanctum (garbhagriha), an antechamber (or vestibule or antarala whose tower is called the sukhanasi) that connects the sanctum to a gathering hall (sabhamantapa) which is preceded by a main hall (mukhamantapa). The walls of the shrine and the sabhamantapa are articulated with projections and recesses creating niches which carry miniature decorative tower or turrets (Aedicula) in vesara style (a fusion of south and north Indian styles). The doorjamb of the sanctum and antechamber are crafted with decorative motifs, and the lintel (lalata) depicts Gajalakshmi (the Hindu goddess Lakshmi flanked by elephants on either side). The square bases of pillars in the sabhamantapa and mukhamantapa have the characteristic decoration with reliefs, depicting various Hindu deities such as Surya (the sun god), Bhairava (a version of the god Shiva) and Durga.
RAILWAY STATION : Hospet
BUS STATION : Kudligi
Kalleshvara Temple, Aralaguppe, Karnataka
The Kalleshvara temple (also spelt "Kallesvara" or "Kalleshwara") is located in Aralaguppe, a village in the Tiptur taluk of Tumkur district, in the Indian state of Karnataka.
HistoryAccording to historian I.K. Sarma, the temple is a fine example of native Western Ganga art of the 9th century, with influences from the Badami Chalukya and Nolamba architectural idioms. It is dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva (also called "Ishvara") and was commissioned by a vassal king of the Nolamba dynasty. Historians I.K. Sarma, B.S. Ali and K.V. Soundara Rajan date the temple to the late 9th century to early 10th century period. B.S. Ali calls this temple one of the finest examples of Western Ganga art while Aschwin Lippe and Soundara Rajan feel the temple is more consistent with contemporary Nolamba style. The dating of the temple is confirmed by two inscriptions. One inscription in the temple dated 895 C.E. (saka 817) describes the commissioning of the temple by a Nolamba king under his overlord, the Western Ganga King Rachamalla II (r. 870-907 C.E.). The inscription also records the grant made by King Rachamalla II himself to the construction of this temple (called Kalla-degula in the inscription). The other inscription, a Hero stone in the temple tank (pushkarni) confirms that this region was under the overall control of the Western Ganga Dynasty during this period. Historian Sarma argues that the Western Gangas and Nolambas had close links with regards to "cultural art" and they would have, in their commission, common guilds of architects (sthapatis) and sculptors (silpis). According to Sarma, the three lateral shrines with a enclosure for Nandi the bull (Nandi-sala), the vehicle (vahana) of the god Shiva, was added during the later Hoysala period and this is confirmed by art critic Takeo Kamiya.
Temple plan and sculptures
The plan of the sanctum (garbhagriha) is a square pyramidal one, with a plain exterior with simple pilasters, a vestibule (antarala) separating the sanctum from a closed hall (mantapa) with a exceptionally well sculptured section called the mahamantapa or navaranga. The superstructure over the shrine (sikhara) and vestibule (sukanasi) have been renovated at a later period but the base on which the temple stands (Adhiṣṭhāna) is original in construction. The door jamb (sakha) and the lintel above the main door have exceptional art. The door jamb exhibits seated door keepers (dwarapalas) at the base, bold scrolls of decorative creepers that run along the sides of the main door and contain Yaksha (benevolent spirits from Hindu mythology) and Yakshis (or Yakshinis, their female counterparts). Above the door, forming the lintel (lalata) is a sculpture of Gajalakshmi (a version of the goddess Lakshmi) with elephants showering her from either side. Sarma feels this sculpture may have inspired the monolithic carving at the main entrance (called akhanda bagilu) on the Vindyagiri hill in the famous Jain heritage town of Shravanabelagola. The ceiling panel grid (ashta-dik-pala grid) of images in the mahamantapa (a section of the mantapa) needs special mention and speaks of the good taste of the Ganga-Nolamba architects. The panel images include a four handed dancing and well ornamented Shiva, and a four tusked elephant (gaja) carrying on its back the god Indra and his consort Sachi
How to Reach to TipturTiptur is a town in Tumkur district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is well known for copra.
The place is a leading trading and educational centre and is about 73 km west of Tumkur on the Bangalore-Honavar road and on the Bangalore-Miraj railway line and about 141 km north-west of Bangalore city.
Kalleshvara Temple, Bagali, Karnataka
The Kalleshvara temple (also spelt Kallesvara or Kalleshwara) is located in the town of Bagali (called Balgali in ancient inscriptions) in the Davangere district of Karnataka state, India. The construction of the temple spans the rule of two Kannada dynasties; the Rashtrakuta Dynasty during mid-10th century, and the Western Chalukya Empire, during the reign of founding King Tailapa II (also called Ahava Malla) around 987 A.D. (the dynasty is also called Later or Kalyani Chalukya). The consecration of the temple was done by an individual called Duggimayya. Art historian Adam Hardy classifies the architectural style of the temple as "Late Rashtrakuta vimana (shrine and tower) with erotic carvings, and a closed mantapa (hall), fronted by a Later Chalukya non-mainstream open mantapa, the building material for which is soapstone". The existing tower over the shrine may be a later day re-construction. The temple, whose premesis has yielded thirty-six old Kannada inscriptions (danashasana, lit, describing donations) from the 10th and 11th centuries is protected as a monument of national importance by the Archaeological Survey of India
Temple plan and decoration
A view of the ornate open hall facing the Nandi (bull) in the east in Kalleshvara temple at BagaliThe temple plan comprises a main shrine for the Hindu god Shiva with a sanctum (cella or garbhagriha) facing east, a vestibule (antechamber or antarala), a main closed hall (mahamantapa) with an entrance in the south and east. These structures are attributed to the 10th century Rashtrakuta rule. The closed hall is preceded by a large, open gathering hall (sabhamandapa) with fifty highly ornate lathe turned pillars that support a decorative ceiling. Also provided are a shrine for the Sun god Surya with a hall (mukhamandapa) facing the east-west orientation, and a small shrine for the deity Narasimha (a form of the Hindu god Vishnu) in the north of the gathering hall. These constructions are ascribed to the Western Chalukya rule. In all, there are eight small shrines built around the main shrine. Of the fifty pillars, twenty four pillars are located over the platform (jagati) provided with a balcony seating (kakshasana). The door ways (doorjamb and lintel) of the eastern doorway that faces the Nandi (bull, a companion of the Hindu god Shiva), and the southern doorway that forms an entry into the close hall are intricately decorated. A few independent sculptures from the late Chalukyan period are found in the closed hall. These include Shiva, Umamahesvara (Shiva with his consort Parvati), Ganesha, Kartikeya, Surya, Anantasayana (the god Vishnu seated on a snake), Sarasvati and Mahishamardini (a form of the goddess Durga).
INTERNATION AIRPORT: Bangalore
RAILWAY STATION : Hospet
BUS STATION : Harapanahalli
Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali, Karnataka
The Kalleshwara temple (also spelt Kalleshvara or Kallesvara) is located in the town of Hire Hadagali in Bellary district of Karnataka state, India. The temple was constructed by Demarasa, prime minister (or mahamatya) to Western Chalukya Empire King Somesvara I (who had the honorific Trailokya Malladeva or "Lord of three worlds"), who reigned from 1042–1068 CE. Some art historians, such as Adam Hardy, refer to this temple as Kattesvara and classify it as a "close to main stream" Western Chalukya architecture (also called Later or Kalyani Chalukya), with the tower over the shrine being a later day re-construction. The basic material used for the original construction is soapstoneThe temple is protected as a monument of national importance by the Archaeological Survey of India
INTERNATION AIRPORT: Bangalore
RAILWAY STATION : Hospet
BUS STATION : Hire-Hadagali
Om Tat Sat
(My humble salutations to the great devotees , wikisources and Pilgrimage tourist guide for the collection )