Holy Pilgrimage – Temples in Karnataka State
Lakshmeshwara SomeshwaraTemple. KarnatakaLakshmeshwara (Kannada: ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮೇಶ್ವರ )is a town in Shirahatti taluk, Gadag district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is about 50 km from Gadag and 55 km from Hubli. Lakshmeshwara is an agricultural trading town.
There are many important temples in this historic town, including the Shiva temple, the "Someshwara Temple". There are two historical Jain temples (Sannabasadi and Shankabasadi) in the town, as well as its notable Jamma Masjid. Lakshmeshwara is also home for many shrines, a dargah, the Kodiyellamma temple, the Mukha Basavanna shrine, and a gigantic idol of Suryanarayana.
HistoryLakshmeshwara is famous for prolific culture and literature. It is a place with rich heritage in Karnataka hence it is called as Tirulugannada Nadu. Many kings have patronised the place.
Lakshmeshwar or ancient Huligere or Puligere was the capital of Puligere-300. Puligere means pond of tigers. There are theories of the origin of the name Lakshmeshwara from King Lakshmanarasa who was ruling Puligere or from the temple called Lakshmi-Lingana gudi, which means the temple of Lakshmi.
Other names include Purigere, Porigere, Purikanagar and Pulikanagar.
Adikavi Pampa wrote his famous poetry in Lakshmeshwara.
Many Jain saints and writers have flourished here They include Devachakra Bhattaraka, Shankanacharya, Hemadevacharya, Padmasena, Tribhuvana Chandra Padmita and Rama Dvacharya.
Kannada inscriptionsAt the Someshwara temple complex, there are many Kannada inscription Over 50 stone inscriptions (records) show the cultural importance.
- The Kannada (Kannadiga) poet Kayasena of Mulgund, who wrote in the Bharmamrita, was a disciple of Narendrasena II of the Lakshmeshwar inscription of 1081.
- Lakshmeshwar inscription of the reign of Jagadekamella II.
- Two Jain Inscription of Mulgund and Lakshmeshwar
- The Lakshmeshwar inscriptions (in Kannada dated January 13, 735), during 733–744 CE Vikramaditya II was the son of King Vijayaditya who ascended the Badami Chalukyas throne following the death of his father.
JainismJainism related to Lakshmeshwara has long history.
- At Lakshmeshwara, during the period of Kirtivarma II, the Jinalaya built by Kumkuma Mahadevi.
- Kalyani Chalukyas most important Jinalayas Brahma Jinalaya at Lakkundi, Charantimatha at Aihole and Sankha Jinalya at Lakshmeswar. The Sankha Jinalaya at Lakshmeshwara is dedicated to Neminatha (as per many inscriptions this was an important Jinalaya). Sendraka Durgashakti, a feudatory of Pulakesi II is said to have given gifts to this temple. An inscription of Vinayaditya (dated 686 A.D.) refers to a grant to Jain acharya of Devagana and mulasangha.
- Epigraph dated 729 A. D. of Vijayaditya mentions a grant to Niravadya Pandita who was to house pupil of Sri Pujyapada. Another inscription of Vikramaditya II (dated 734 A. D.) mentions gifts to Sweta Jinalaya.
- The Jaina monument of the Rashtrakuta period found Lakshmeshwar.
The Temple ComplexThe most important monuments are at Lakshemshwar is the Someshwara temple complex ( 11th century). The temple complex with three main entrances is surrounded by high walls look like a fort. It is a splendid specimen of Chalukya architecture.
In middle of the temple complex, there is a Someshwara temple, surrounded by many small temples mainly dedicated to Shiva, along the compound wall, built with granite, some halls in the complex meant for resting devotees.
Someshwara templeSomeshwara temple with the traditional structures of a temple includes a garbha griha, an ardha mantapa or halfway hall, a navaranga and a mukha mantapa or entrance porch.
The Nandi and Shiva Parvati idols in the temple are exquisitely sculpted. These idols are referred to as Saurashtra Someshwara, as these idols were brought by a Shiva devotee from Saurashtra and installed at Lakshmeshwara.
Open wellIn side the Someshwara temple complex, behind the temple there is an open well, meant mainly for the use of the temple.
Transportation tp HubliHubli is well connected by road, rail and air. NWKRTC (North West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation) is a state run corporation headquartered at Gokul Road, Hubli. There is excellent inter-city transportation between Hubli and Dharwad as NWKRTC and Bendre Nagara Sarige (a consortium of private bus-owners) healthily compete to cater to the large number of commuters between Hubli and Dharwad daily . Bus services from the twin-cities exist to every part of Karnataka and neighbouring states and other popular destinations. There are many private bus operators who render services for overnight travel between Hubli and Bangalore, Mangalore, Pune, Mumbai, Hyderabad.
Several express and passenger trains ply between Hubli and Bangalore everyday. Hubli being an important railway junction has daily trains to Gadag, Bagalkot, Bijapur, Solapur, Bellary, Belgaum, Bangalore, Mumbai, Davangere, Pune, Delhi, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Vijayawada, Mysore,Tirupati and weekly services to Chennai, Howrah and Thiruvanantapuram.
Hubli has an airport in gokul road IATA code:HBX. SpiceJet provides daily flights to Bangalore.
Lakshmi Devi Temple, Doddagaddavalli, Karnataka
The Lakshimi Devi temple is located in Doddagaddavalli, a village in Hassan District of Karnataka state, India. It is located 16 km from the district capital Hassan and lies on the Hassan city - Belur highway. The town's main attraction, the Lakshmi Devi temple, was built by the Hoysala Empire King Vishnuvardhana in 1114 C.E. The temple is situated in the midst of pristine coconut plantations and has a lake at its rear which adds to the scenic beauty.
The Lakshmi Devi Temple is one of the earliest known temples built in the Hoysala style. The building material is Chloritic schist, more commonly known as soapstone. The temple does not stand on a jagati (platform), a feature which became popular in later Hoysala temples. The temple was commissioned by a merchant called Kullahana Rahuta and his wife Sahaja Devi. The temple is a unique chatuskuta construction (four shrines and towers) built inside a 7-foot-tall (2.1 m) stone wall enclosure with the entrance through a porch whose roof is supported by circular lathe-turned pillars. Three of the vimanas (shrines) have a common square mantapa (hall) with nine "bays" or compartments. The fourth vimana is connected to the mantapa via an oblong extension consisting of two "bays". The extension has two lateral entrances into the temple. All the vimanas have their original tower (superstructure) intact. The towers are in Kadamba nagara style. Each vimana has a vestibule connecting it to the central mantapa. On top of the vestibule is its own tower called sukanasi (or "nose" because it looks like low extension of the main tower over the shrine). The sukanasi is a tier lower than the main tower over the shrine. All the four sukanasi are intact and so are the kalasa (decorative water pot like structure) on top of the main towers. The Hoysala emblem (the sculpture of a legendary warrior "Sala" fighting a lion) is mounted atop one of the Sukanasi. Of the four towers, three are undecorated and they look stepped pyramidal with a pile of dented horizontal mouldings with the kalasa on top. The fourth tower is very well decorated (which is typical of Hoysala designs) and this is the tower of the main shrine that houses the Lakshmi Devi image.The mantapa is open and square. The reason for the square plan is the presence of shrines on all four sides of the mantapa with no side open for "staggering". There is a separate fifth shrine of Bhairava, an avatar of the Hindu god Shiva. The shrine is complete with its own vimana and tower with a kalasa on top, a sukanasi with Hoysala emblem on top. Another unusual feature of the temple is the existence of four more minor shrines at each corner of the temple complex with two sides of each shrine attached to the courtyard wall. Each of these minor shrines has its own tower, kalasa and Hoysala emblem In all, the temple complex has nine towers which is unusual for a Hoysala temple.
According to art critic Gerard Foekema, overall the temple has the "older style", where there is only one eaves running round the temple where the main towers meet the wall of the shrine. At the base of the wall of the shrines are five moldings, a standard in the "old stlye" of Hoysala architecture; between the moldings and the eaves, the usual panels of Hoysala sculptures depicting Hindu gods, goddesses and their attendants is however missing. Instead, the entire space is taken up by decorative miniature towers on pilasters (called Aedicule). The ceiling of the main hall is supported by eighteen lathe-turned pillars. Inside the main hall, there are two sculptures of large demonic living corpses called betala. The main shrine facing east has a 3-foot-tall (0.91 m) image of the goddess Lakshmi with an attendant on either side. The image holds a conch in the upper right hand, a chakra (discuss) in the upper left, a rosary in the lower right and a mace in the lower left. In the shrines facing north, south and west respectively are the images of Kali (a form of Durga), the god Vishnu, and Boothanatha Linga (the universal symbol of the god Shiva). A sculpture of Tandaveswara (dancing Shiva) exists in the circular panel at the center of the ceiling of the mantapa. Other important sculptures are those of Gajalakshmi (form of Lakshmi with elephants on either side), Tandaveshwara and Yoganarasimha (form of Vishnu) found on the doorway of the temple’
Lakshmi Narasimha Temple, Bhadravathi, KarnatakaLakshmi Narasimha Temple built by the Hoysalas in the 13th century is located in Bhadravathi, a town in the South Indian state of Karnataka. This beautiful Hoysala architecture temple is maintained by the Archaeological Department of Karnataka state. This temple is dedicated to Lord Narasimha (incarnation of Lord Vishnu). It was built by Veera Narasimha, the grandson of Vishnuvardhana. It has murthis of Lord Srikrishna, Lord Purushottama, Lord Ganesha, Goddess Sharadamba along with Lord Narasimha. It is built on a Nakshtra style platform.
RoadTwo national highways pass through the city: NH-206 and NH-13; the two highways converge for a short length starting in Bhadravathi and ending in Shivamogga. Two state highways pass through the city as well. Buses that go from Bangalore to Shivamogga stop at Bhadravathi and take around six hours to complete the journey. thumb|Tiled houses seen on a foggy morning in Bhadravathi
RailThe Shivamoga–Bangalore train, the Birur–Shivamoga train, and the Mysore–Shivamoga train all go through Bhadravathi coming soon Shimoga to Talaguppa train its nearly in 6months
AirThe nearest airport is in Hubli, around 170 kilometres (110 mi) from Bhadravathi. Another airport is under construction in Shivamogga
Lakshminarasimha Temple, Haranhalli, Karnataka
The Lakshminarasimha temple at Haranhalli is a complete and good example of 13th century Hoysala architecture. Haranhalli is located aboput 35 km from Hassan city in Karnataka state, India. The temple, whose main deity is the Hindu god Vishnu, was built in 1235 A.D. by the Hoysala Empire King Vira Someshwara. A few hundred meters from this temple is the architecturally complete though less ornate Sadashiva temple. The main deity in this temple is the Hindu god Shiva represented by his universal symbol, the linga. This temple also belongs to the same time period. This temple is a protected monument under the Karnataka state division of the Archaeological Survey of India
OverviewThe temple plan is similar to that found in the temples at Hosaholalu, Nuggihalli and Javagallu. While its decorative ornamentation is somewhat lesser in quality, this temple has seen no structural additions or modifications during later periods, giving it a more original look. The temple plan is that of a trikuta (three shrined), with a strong focus on the middle shrine which has a superstructure (tower or shikhara) and a sukhanasi (nose or tower over the vestibule) The three shrines are connected by a common hall (mantapa). The lateral shrines are connected directly to the hall while the middle shrine has a vestibule that connects the sanctum (cella or vimana) to the hall Since the lateral shrines do not have a tower and are directly connected to the hall (without a vestibule and its corresponding tower like projection), they do not appear like shrines at all from the outside but rather as a part of the hall. The central shrine on the contrary is highly visible because of its tower, and the sukhanasi that projects prominently from the tower The temple stands on a platform called jagati, a feature common to many Hoysala temples. The platform, in addition to adding visual beauty, provides the devotees a path for circumambulation (pradakshinapatha) around the temple. The platform has three flights of steps, one leading to the entrance to the hall and the other two that lead only up to the platform, further enhancing the visual appearance. The Sadashiva temple has the same overall plan as the Lakshminarasimha temple but is less inspiring in artistic merit. The decoration in the interior of the temple however deserves special mention for its taste
Decoration and sculpturesThe sanctum of the three shrines contain an image of the Hindu god Vishnu; Venugopala, Keshava and Lakshminarasimha. The towers over the central shrine and its vestibule (sukhanasi or nose) are intact and intricate. The kalasa on top of the tower (the decorative water-pot at the apex of the tower) is however missing. Since the lateral shrines have no towers, their superstructure comprises a stylish row of miniature roofs above the upper eaves. The decorative plan of the walls of the shrines and the hall is of the "new kind" (with two eaves that run around the temple). In the "new kind" of decorative articulation, the first heavy eaves runs below the superstructure and all around the temple with a projection of about half a meter. The second eaves runs around the temple about a meter below the first. In between the two eaves are the miniature decorative towers (Aedicula) on pilasters. Below the second eaves are the wall panel of images of Hindu deities and their attendants in relief, not all of which in this temple are sharp in workmanship. Below this, at the base are the six equal width rectangular moldings (frieze). Starting from the top, the friezes depict; hansa (birds) in the first frieze, makara (aquatic monsters) in the second, the usual depiction of scenes from the Hindu epics are absent in the third frieze which has been left blank. This is followed by leafy scrolls in the fourth frieze. The fifth and sixth friezes exhibit high quality workmanship in depicting horses and elephants respectively
Lakshminarasimha Temple, Javagal, Karnataka
The Lakshminarasimha temple at Javagal (also called Javagallu) is an example of mid-13th century Hoysala architecture. Javagal is located aboput 50 km from Hassan city and about 20 km from Halebidu in Karnataka state, India. Halebidu is historically important as the erstwhile capital of the Hoysala empire. The temple, whose main deity is Narasimha (a form of the Hindu god Vishnu), was built in 1250 A.D. by the Hoysala Empire King Vira Someshwara. This temple is a protected monument under the Karnataka state division of the Archaeological Survey of India.
OverviewThe temple plan is simple and commonly found in other Hoysala temples. It is a trikuta (three shrined), though only the middle shrine has a superstructure (tower or sikhara) and a sukhanasi (nose or tower over the vestibule) The three equal size shrines are all square in plan and are connected by a common closed hall (mantapa). The closed hall is preceded by an open porch. The lateral shrines are connected directly to the hall while the middle shrine has a vestibule that connects the sanctum (cella ) to the hall. Since the lateral shrines have no tower over them and are directly connected to the hall without a vestibule and its corresponding tower like projection, they do not appear like shrines at all from the outside. Rather, they appear absorbed into the walls of hall. The central shrine on the contrary is highly visible from the outside because of its tower, and the sukhanasi that projects prominently from the tower. The lower part of the shrines (below the roof) have five projections per side, these projections being visible on three sides in the case of the central shrine but only on one side in the case of the lateral shrines.
The temple stands on a platform (jagati), a feature common to many Hoysala temples. The platform, in addition to its visual appeal, is meant to provide devotees a path for circumambulation (pradakshinapatha) around the temple. It closely follows the outline of the temple, giving it a good elevated look The tower over the central shrine and the vestibule are intact and highly decorative. Other standard features in a Hoysala temple are the large domed roof over the tower, which is also the largest sculptural piece in a Hoysala temple (called the "helmet" or amalaka) and whose shape usually follows the that of the shrine (square or star shape); the kalasa on top of it (the decorative water-pot at the apex of the dome); and the Hoysala crest (emblem of the Hoysala warrior stabbing a lion) over the sukhanasi. Here the emblem and the kalasa are missing. The kalasa has been replaced during later times with a metallic pinnacle.
Decoration and sculpturesThe decorative plan of the outer walls of the shrines and the mantapa (hall) is of the "new kind", with two eaves that run around the temple. According to art historian Gerard Foekema, the wall panel images (one hundred and forty in all), and the reliefs and friezes that abound in this temple have a relaxed quality of workmanship about them, and in no Hoysala temple do these appear more "folkish in character" In the "new kind" of decorative articulation, the first heavy eaves runs below the superstructure and all around the temple with a projection of about half a meter. The second eaves runs around the temple about a meter below the first. In between the two eaves are the miniature decorative towers (Aedicula) on pilasters. Below the second eaves are the wall panel of images of Hindu deities and their attendants in relief. Below this, at the base are the six equal width rectangular moldings (frieze). Starting from the top, the friezes depict; hansa (birds) in the first frieze, makara (aquatic monsters) in the second, epics and other stories in the third (usually from the Hindu epic Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and stories of Krishna), leafy scrolls in the fourth, horses in the fifth and elephants in the sixth (bottom frieze)
Lakshmi Narasimha Temple, Nuggehalli, Karnataka
The Lakshminarasimha temple was built in 1246 CE by Bommanna Dandanayaka, a commander in the Hoysala Empire during he rule of King Vira Someshwara. It is a good example of 13th century Hoysala architecture. The town was called Vijaya Somanathapura in ancient times and gained importance as an agrahara (place of learning) during the time of Bommanna Dandanayaka. The Sadasiva temple is another interesting temple in the town. It is a fine example of Hoysala nagara style of architecture with Bhumija type superstructure. It was also built by Bommanna Dandanayaka in 1249 CE. Nuggehalli, (also spelled "Nuggihalli"), is a town in Hassan district of Karnataka, India. It is located on the Tiptur-Channarayapatna state highway and is about 50 km from Hassan city. It is well connected by road with Bangalore, the state capital.
Lakshmi Narasimha TempleThis is a good example of a richly decorated Hoysala temple built in the trikuta (three towers) vimana (shrine) style with fine sculptures adorning the walls. The material used is Chloritic Schist, more commonly known as Soapstone) and the temple is built on a jagati (platform) that closely follows the plan of the temple. The size of the original temple can be considered small, to which a larger open mantapa(hall) was later added. The three shrines are located around a central closed mantapa with 9 "bays" (compartment between four pillars) The ceiling of the closed mantapa is supported by four lathe turned pillars which is deeply domed in the center. The central shrine is the most prominent one and has a large tower. This shrine has a vestibule that connects the shrine to the mantapa (hall). Consequently, the vestibule also has a tower (or superstructure, sikhara) that looks like an shorter extension of the main tower. It is called the sukanasi. According to Foekema, it looks like the "nose" of the main tower The other two shrines have smaller towers and because they have no vestibule to connect them to the central mantapa, they have no sukanasi.
From outside, the temple actually looks like a ekakuta (single tower and shrine) temple because the two lateral shrines are simple extensions of the wall of the mantapa. Their towers are a later addition. This is a classic example of a trikuta (three shrines and towers) that looks like a ekakuta A large open hall with tall pillars was added during later times making the original porch and closed mantapa look like the inner portion of the temple. The central shrine has five projections per side and the tower is complete though without the kalasha (decorative structure on top). Since the shrine is square in plan, the topping roof (a helmet like sculptured stone) follows the same plan. There are three tiers of decorative smaller roofs bearing their own kalasa that form the body of the main tower. The superstructure on top of the vestibule (forming the nose) has only two tiers of decorative roofs. This is why the sukanasi looks like an extension of the main tower. The two lateral shrines also have five projections per side. The top of these shrines and the wall of the mantapa are crowned with a row of decorated roofs just like the main shrine.
According to art critic Gerard Foekema, the temple is of a "newer" Hoysala style, and below the superstructure of the vimana where the roof meets the outer walls of the temple, two eaves all round the temple. The upper eaves projects about half a meter from the wall. There is a second eaves running about a meter below the upper eaves with decorative miniature towers (aedicule) between them. The wall images of Hindu gods and goddesses and their attendants are below the lower eaves, and there are 120 such sculptured panels in all. Below these are six moldings of equal size with decorations in frieze. This according to historian Kamath is broadly called "horizontal treatment". The six moldings at the base of the wall is divided into two sections. Starting from the base where the wall meets the jagati, the first horizontal lmolding contains procession of elephants, above which are a horsemen, and a band of foliage on the third. The second horizontal section starts with depictions from the Hindu epics and puranic scenes executed with detail. Above this are two friezes of yalis (or makara, an imaginary beast) and hamsas (swans). The vimana tower is divided into three horizontal sections and is even more ornate than the walls.
The images in the panels are mostly Vaishnava in faith and they are attributed to two well known Hoysala sculptors, Baichoja and Mallitamma There are a few images of the god Shiva in the form of Bhairava along with his consort Bhairavi. Baichoja's sculptures are on the south side of the temple and according to Foekema, have a certain peace and dignity about them. Mallitamma's sculptures are on the north side. According to him, while they are not as fine, they are lively and have greater variety. The three shrines contain the images of Venugopala, Keshava and Lakshminarasimha, all forms of Vishnu.
This is an unusual Hoysala temple built in the ekakuta architecture with nagara (north Indian) styled tower. The walls of the shrine and the mantapa are severe looking as there is no sculptural decoration. Yet this temple is considered important from the architecture point of view The temple is built on a jagati (platform) and Soapstone (or green–chloritic schist) is the material used. The temple has a large "linga" (the universal symbol of the god Shiva) in its sanctum and an equally large and extremely well carved Nandi in a closed hall whose walls have perforated stone windows. Also unique about this temple is one of its kind life-size standing image of the goddess Parvati (consort of Shiva). The unique images of the navagraha (lit, "nine planets"), facing each other is another unique feature to be noted. There are two images of the god Ganesha (son of Shiva), one outside the sanctum and the other at the entrance to the sanctum housing the goddess Parvati. In the common hall are the intricately carved independent images (not in frieze) of deities from the Hindu pantheon that are noteworthy; Chamundeshwari (the devine mother), Subramanya (a son of Shiva), Ganesha, Kala Bhairava (a version of Shiva), a set of images depicting the different incarnations (avatars) of Parvati, and Surya Narayana (a version of the god Vishnu).
Lakshminarayana Temple, Hosaholalu, Karnataka
The Lakshminarayana Temple is located in Hosaholalu, a small town in the Mandya district of Karnataka state, India. It was built by King Vira Someshwara of the Hoysala Empire in 1250 C.E. The dating of the temple is based on the style of the sculptures and architecture that compares closely with the contemporary Hoysala monuments at Javagalu, Nuggehalli and Somanathapura. The town of Hosaholalu is about 60 kilometres (37 mi) from Hassan and 45 kilometres (28 mi) from the heritage city of Mysore, the cultural capital of Karnataka state.Temple Plan
The temple is an splendid example of a trikuta vimana (three shrined) temple though only the central shrine exhibits a tower (superstructure or Sikhara) on top The lateral shrines are square in construction with five projections and no special features. The central shrine is well decorated and its tower has a sukanasi (called "nose") which is actually a lower tower over the vestibule that connects the shrine (cella containing the image of the deity) to the hall (mantapa). The sukanasi looks like an extension of the main tower over the central shrine. The material used for the temple construction is chloritic schist, more commonly known as Soapstone. The temple is built on a jagati (platform), a Hoysala innovation that elevates the temple by about a metre.
According to art critic Gerard Foekema, the temple as a whole exhibits the "new style" and belongs to the 2nd phase of Hoysala building activity (13th century), with two sets of eaves, and six moldings at the base of the outer wall. The first eave is located where the superstructure meets the temple outer wall and the second eave runs around the temple and about a metre below the first eave. In between the two eaves are decorative miniature towers on pilasters (called Aedicule), with sculptured wall images of Hindu deities and their attendants below the second eave. Being a Vaishnava temple (a Hindu sect), most of the images represent some form of Hindu god Vishnu, his consort and his attendants. There are a hundred and twenty such images. In all there are twenty four sculptures of Vishnu standing upright holding in his four arms the four attributes, a conch, a wheel, a lotus and a mace in all possible permutations. Below the panel of deities is the base of the wall consisting of six decorative rectangular moldings of equal width which run all around the temple.
The six horizontal mouldings are intricately sculptured and are called friezes. Seen from top to bottom; the first frieze depicts birds (hansa), the second depicts aquatic monsters (makara), the third frieze has depictions of Hindu epics and other mythological and puranic stories narrated in the clockwise direction (direction of devotee circumabulation), the fourth frieze has leafy scrolls, the fifth and sixth friezes have a procession of horses and elephants respectively In the frieze that depicts the epics, the Ramayana starts from the western corner of the southern shrine and the Mahabharata starts from the northern side of the central shrine vividly illustrating the demise of many heroes of the famous war between Pandavas and Kauravas
The interior of the temple consists of a closed hall (mantapa) of modest size with four polished lathe turned pillars supporting the roof. The four central pillars divide the hall into nine equal "bays" (compartments) and nine decorated ceilings The sanctum of the three shrines contain the images of Venugopala, Narayana in the middle and Lakshminarasimha; all forms (Avatar) of Vishnu.
Om Tat Sat
(My humble salutations to the great devotees , wikisources and Pilgrimage tourist guide for the collection )