Holy Pilgrimage – Temples in Karnataka State
Murudeshwara Temple, Karnataka
Murudeshwara is a town in the Bhatkal Taluk of Uttara Kannada district in the state of Karnataka, India. "Murudeshwara" is another name of the Hindu god Shiva. Famous for the world's second-tallest Shiva statue, Murudeshwara beach town lies on the coast of the Arabian Sea and is also famous for the Murudeshwara Temple. The nearest airport to Murudeshwar is Mangalore International Airport at distance of 160 kilometre Murudeshwar has railway station on Konkan railway route.
Etymology and legendThe origin of the name "Murudeshwara" dates to the time of Ramayana.
The Hindu gods attained immortality and invincibility by worshipping a divine Lingam called the Atma-Linga. The Lanka King Ravana wanted to attain immortality by obtaining the Atma-Linga (Soul of Shiva). Since the Atma-Linga belonged to Lord Shiva, Ravana worshipped Shiva with devotion. Pleased by his prayers, Lord Shiva appeared before him and asked him what he wanted. By this time Narada had asked Lord Vishnu to change Ravana's mind. As a result of this plot, Ravana asks for Goddess Parvati, and Lord Shiva offers her to him. On his way back to Lanka Narada tells Ravana that Lord had not given him the real Parvathi and that the real Parvathi was in Pathala. So Ravana frees his companion,goes to Pathala and marries a king's daughter, assuming her to be the real Parvathi. He then returns to Lanka, where his mother asks him for the Linga. Ravana then comes to know of the tricks played on him by Lord Vishnu. He therefore prays to Lord Shiva again, begging for his forgiveness. Lord Shiva appears and this time, Ravana requests the AtmaLinga as his boon. Lord Shiva agrees to give him the boon with the condition that it should never be placed on the ground. If the AtmaLinga was ever placed on the ground, all the powers would return to Lord Shiva again. Having obtained his boon, Ravana started back on his journey to Lanka.
Sage Narada, who came to know of this incident, realised that with the AtmaLinga, Ravana may obtain immortality and create havoc on earth. He approached the Lord Ganesh and requested him to prevent the AtmaLinga from reaching Lanka. Lord Ganesh knew that Ravana was a very devoted person who used to perform prayer ritual in the evening every day without fail. He decided to make use of this fact and came up with a plan to confiscate the AtmaLinga from Ravana.
As Ravana was nearing Gokarna, Lord Vishnu blotted out the sun to give the appearance of dusk. Ravana now had to perform his evening rituals but was worried because with the AtmaLinga in his hands, he would not be able to do his rituals. At this time, Lord Ganesh in the disguise of a Brahmin boy accosted him. Ravana requested him to hold the AtmaLinga until he performed his rituals, and asked him not to place it on the ground. Ganesh struck a deal with him saying that he would call Ravana thrice, and if Ravana did not return within that time, he would place the AtmaLinga on the ground.
As predicted, before Ravana could return after completing his rituals, Ganesh had already placed the AtmaLinga on the ground. Vishnu then removed his illusion and it was daylight again. Ravana, realising that he had been tricked, tried to uproot and destroy it. Due to the force exerted by Ravana, some pieces were scattered. One such piece from the head of the linga is said to have fallen in present day Surathkal. The famous Sadashiva temple is said to be built around that piece of linga. Then he decided to destroy the covering of the AtmaLinga, and threw the case covering it to a place called Sajjeshwara, 23 miles away. Then he threw the lid of the case to a placed called Guneshwara (now Gunavanthe) and Dhareshwara, 10–12 miles away. Finally, he threw the cloth covering the AtmaLinga to a placed called Mrideshwara in Kanduka-Giri (Kanduka Hill). Mrideshwara has been renamed to Murudeshwara.
- Murudeshwara Temple and Raja Gopura: This temple is built on the Kanduka Hill which is surrounded on three sides by the waters of the Arabian Sea. It is dedicated to the Lord Shiva, and a 20-storied Gopura is constructed at the temple. Two life-size elephants in concrete stand guard at the steps leading to it. The entire temple and temple complex, including the 237.5-feet-tall Raja Gopura, is one among the tallest, was constructed to its present form by businessman and philanthropist R. N. Shetty.
The temple is entirely modernized with exception of the sanctum sanctorum which is still dark and retains its composure. The main deity is Sri Mridesa Linga, also called Murudeswara. The linga is believed to be a piece of the original Atma Linga and is about two feet below ground level. The devotees performing special sevas like Abhisheka, Rudrabhisheka, Rathotsava etc. can view the deity by standing before the threshold of the sanctum and the Lingam is illuminated by oil lamps held close by the priests. The Lingam is essentially a rough rock inside a hollowed spot in the ground. Entry into the sanctum is banned for all devotees.
- Statue of Lord Shiva: A huge towering statue of Lord Shiva, visible from great distances, is present in the temple complex. It is the third highest statue of Lord Shiva in the world. The Tallest Lord shiva statue is in Nepal known as the(Kailashnath Mahadev Statue). The statue is 123 feet (37 m) in height and took about two years to build. The statue was built by Shivamogga's Kashinath and several other sculptors, financed by businessman and philanthropist R.N. Shetty, at a cost of approximately 50 million Rs. The idol is designed such that it gets the sunlight directly and thus appears sparkling Originally, the statue had four arms and was adorned in gold paint. However, large wind gusts blew one arm off (the one that held a small drum), and rain dissolved the paint.
Mylara Lingeshwara Temple, Mylara, Karnataka
Mylara Lingeshwara Temple at Mylara (ಮೈಲಾರ ಲಿಂಗೇಶ್ವರ ದೇವಸ್ಥಾನ, ಮೈಲಾರ) is in the extreme south-western corner of Hoovina Hadagali taluk, Bellary District, North Karnataka, India. It is 2 km from Tungabhadra river and 40 km from Hadagali and 34 km from Ranebennur. Mylara Lingeshwara is one of the forms of Shiva. The temple is dedicated to Shiva worshiped by Kuruba Gowdas in his form as Mailari.
According to legendMallasura (demon) and his brother performed a severe penance extracted from Brahma and, with a promise that they should never be harmed by any human being, began to harass the sages or rishis. The sages appealed Shiva to protect them; Shiva took on a new form and, taking with him his forces of seven crores goravas, warred with Mallasura and his brother Manikasura for 10 days> He then slew them both with his bow. During the battle, Mylara (Shiva) lost his powers and had to run from the battlefield. After a marathon run, Mailari hid himself in the Tungabhadra river. Then Lord Veerabhadra, Shiva's aide, struck the earth with his long hair and five brave warriors (Panchaveeras) (i.e., Kanchaveeras) emerged from the spot. The Kanchaveeras confronted Mallasura and Manikasura and handed them over to Mailara. After killing Mallasura and Manikasura, Mailara (Shiva) wore their intestines as his turban, their teeth as a cowrie necklace, their mouths as a damaruga (hand drum), skulls as a doni (meal bowl) and their skins as a long coat. The fat of the demons was used as oil and their nerves athe lamp wick.
Karnika Utsava (prophecy)Rituals during the Mailara Jatre (fair) include the Karanika Utsava (bow-climbing and prophecy-uttering ritual) and Pavada (body piercing ritual). Karanika Utsava is performed by the Karanika Gorava, who fasts for 12 days, after which he climbs a 12-meter bow and utters a euphoric prophecy regarding regional agriculture, animal husbandry, and politics.
Karnikotsava Gorava's utterance tumbida koda mooru bhaga aadeethale parakh! means "A full pot may get split into three parts". Karnikotsava means the prophecy; it is like a puzzle. Some guess it to be an indication of political situation in the state and some guess about rain and crop that means it is an indication of some threat to the agriculture so, the prophecy warns the farmers to be very careful It is believed that the saying would indicate the future of the coming year
On Karnikotsava day, the devotees converge to the temple chanting "elukoti elukoti elukotigo... changmalo changmalo". "Elukoti" means seven crores commemorating the seven crore Goravas who accompanied Mailari. By afternoon, a huge wooden bow, symbolic of that with which Shiva slew Mallasura, is brought and placed in the middle of a vast area called Denkana maradi. The gorava carries the bow from his tent and climbs up it, stares from the top in the four directions, and then begins trembling as a sign of divine inspiration, and the pilgrims wait for his prophecy. Gorava gazes skywards, before pronouncing the annual divination. Soon after this he drops down himself from the bow, and the devotees waiting around carefully catch him. The prophecy is believed to be divine truth by the devotees.
ManagementManagement of the Mylar temple is done by The Wodeyar family. Earlier it was Jayachandra Wodeyar who managed the temple; now it is Sri Sri Sri Venkappayya Wodeyar on inheritance and Wodeyar family belongs to the Kshatriya cult. These people are called Guru or Swamy. They are responsible for continuing the pooja, traditions which were carried from past generation
This year's karnika by swami is that "Thumibda Koda Mooru Baghavaditelye Parak" means of that a full water vessel is broken into three parts. For spiritual meaning that this year's crop, politics and family or ambitions of human beings, which effects be careful. On 20 February 2011 Mylar Jatre happened. There were more than 7-8 lakhs devotees participating. The jatra was held from 10 February 2011 to 21 February 2011. Ratha saptami on 20 February 2011, karnikostava on 21 February 2011, sarapali pavaada this year katnika was AMBALI DUNDAGADEETALE PARAAK. From 27 jan 2012 to 7 feb 2012 jatra will cominced during this time gorappa the holy man represent god fasting 11 days in karnika maradi( karnika hill locate 1/23 km from temple ) on last day Karnikostavaday he him self breaking fast and sentence Karnika. plz come attend see the holy festival of karnataka a largest jarta.
Nagamangala Temple, KarnatakaNagamangala (Kannada: ನಾಗಮಂಗಲ ) is a panchayat town in Mandya district in the Indian state of Karnataka.
RoadsMandya district has an extenstive road network. NH 48 and NH 209 passes through the district. The road network in the district includes 73 kilometres (45 mi) of National Highways, 467 kilometres (290 mi) of State Highways and 2,968 kilometres (1,844 mi) of Major district roads.
RailwaysMandya belongs to "South Western Railways" of "Indian Railways". Mandya has many railway stations which are listed below:
- Shrirangapattana - S
- Pandavapura - PANP
- Mandya- MYA
- Maddur -MAD
Nageshvara-Chennakeshava Temple complex, Mosale, Karnataka
The Nageshvara-Chennakeshava temple complex (also spelt Nagesvara and Chennakesava) is an elegant example of Hoysala architecture of the early 12th century. It is located in the village of Mosale, about 10 km from Hassan city, in Hassan district of Karnataka state, India. The temple was build in 1200 A.D. during the reign of Hoysala King Veera Ballala II. According to art historian Gerard Foekema, the two temples that are built next to each other, in an idyllic rural setting, form a "perfect twin". This temple is protected as a monument of national importance by the Archaeological Survey of India.
ArchitectureBy plan, the temples are simple single shrined structures with all the standard features of Hoysala architecture; a porch entrance into a square closed mantapa or navaranga (hall with no windows and a thick wall) leading to the sanctum, and a superstructure (sikhara) over the main shrine fitting the description of a ekakuta (single shrine with top). The sanctum (garbhagriha) is connected to the hall by a vestibule called sukhanasi. The closed hall, whose inner and outer walls are decorated has four central lathe turned pillars that support a bay ceiling. The temples are constructed next to each other. The Nageshvara temple (lit, "Lord of snakes"), dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva (represented by his universal symbol, the linga) is in the south. The Chennakeshava temple (lit, "beautiful Vishnu"), dedicated to a standing cult image of the Hindu god Vishnu, is to the north. Since all features are replicated in the temples, Gerard Foekema considers the ensamble a dvikuta (two shrines with two towers)
The superstructure (tower or sikhara) over each shrine is three tiered (tritala arpita) and vesara in style. It is intact, finely sculptured and has a decorative low extension which is actually the tower over the vestibule (that connects the cella (sanctum) and the hall). The extension tower looks like the "nose" of the main superstructure and is also called sukhanasi. The sukanasi structure holds the beautiful Hoysala crest that depicts a royal warrior stabbing a lion. At the top of the superstructure of the shrine is a "helmet" like sculptured dome (amalaka) whose ground surface area can be 2x2 meters. It is the largest piece of sculpture in the temple. The amalaka supports a decorative water pot like structure called the kalasha which is the apex of the tower. All these features are intact in both temples.
The temple outer wall decorative features (horizontal treatment) belong to the "old kind". In this type of decoration, below the superstructure, an eaves that projects about half a meter runs all around the temple. Below the eaves are decorative miniature towers (aedicula) on pilasters. In the "old kind", the large wall images of deities and their attendants are placed below these decorative towers. Some of these images appear damaged, but there are others that require special mention for their elegance and art. The panel images at the Nageshvara temple have their names on their pedestals. Some of these are images of Sridevi, Lakshmidevi, Gauri, Maheshvari (another name for Parvati), Brahma, Sadashiva (form of Shiva) and Bhumidevi (representation of mother earth). The Channakeshava temple has sculptures of Garuda (the eagle), Keshava (a form of Vishnu), Janardana, Venugopala, Madhava (a form of Krishna) and Bhudevi. Below these images, the base of the wall comprises five different horizontal moldings, one of which is a row of blocks.
Nellitheertha Cave Temple, KarnatakaNellitheertha Cave Temple (Tulu: ನೆಲ್ಲಿ ತೀರ್ಥ ಗುಹಾಲಯ) in Nellitheertha, Karnataka, India is dedicated to the Indian deity Sri Somanatheshwara, or Shiva. The temple dates back to at least 1487 CE .
To the right of the temple is a natural cave, about 200 metres (660 ft) long. Access is restricted, forcing visitors to crawl in on their knees. Inside, there is a lake and a Shiva Lingam.
OriginsIt is believed that the cave in Nellitheertha was used by Sage Jabali to perform a penance to appease Lord Durga Parameshwari. Lord Durga appeared in front of Sage Jabali and assured him that she would kill the demon Arunasura. She later took the shape of a wasp and killed Arunasura on the banks of the river Nandini. At that place today is a beautiful temple of Lord Durgaparameshwari and the place is very well known as Kateel.
Lord Durga also assured Sage Jabali that Shiva, Vishnu and Durga herself would grace that region and that there would be temples to worship all three of them in the vicinity. One can find a Vishnu temple near Nellitheertha at a place called Kompadavu. Lord Durga is worshipped in a place called Muchur, again near Nellitheertha. And Lord Shiva made Nellitheertha his abode
Reaching NellitheerthaThere are several routes to reach Nellitheertha.
- From Mangalore, take the route towards Moodabidri. Travel beyond Gurupura, Kaikamba and reach Yedapadavu. Here, take a deviation towards Muchur. Nellitheertha is 8 km away from Yedapadavu.
- Reach Bajpe from Mangalore and take the route to Kathelsaar. Continue on the same road to reach Nellitheertha.
- Reach Kateel from Mangalore. Nellitheertha is about 5 km away from Kateel.
- While driving from Bangalore, one can take a deviation at B C Road and go through Polali and Kaikamba and reach Nellitheertha. This avoids having to travel through Mangalore.
- While driving from Bangalore, one can take a deviation at B C Road and go through Kuppepadavu, Yedapadavu and reach Nellitheertha. This also avoids having to travel through Mangalore.
Padutirupathi Temple, Karkala, Karnataka
Sree Venkataramana Temple, Karkala is an ancient temple in Karnataka, India. It was built by Goud Saraswat Brahmins of Karkala then it was installed on April 25 1537.
EtymologyThis shrine lies to the west of Tirupati while original shrine is in the east. The name itself signifies its meaning. Padu means 'West' in Kannada and Tirupathi means Tirumala temple.
History and originThis ancient temple of Karkala, Karnataka, India was built by Goud Saraswat Brahmins of Karkala. They migrated from Goa after the Portuguese invaded it. They could not suffer their tortures. So they migrated to places like Karnataka and Kerala, where they brought all their household items.
Original installationThis temple has a history dating from about the 14th century when the Jain Bhairarasa Odeyars ruled Karkala and surrounding places. The Gaud Saraswat Brahmins were given land by the Jain Odeyars so that these people can lead a happy life. They also gave them lands for agriculture as these Brahmins had it as an occupation. The priests of this community namely Joishys, Puraniks and Tantris are the main people who had an existence from 14th century. The exact date of installation of this temple is still unknown as during that time there was no written material or documents.
Installation ceremony and its historyThe main attraction of this temple was its installation ceremony. The Gaud Saraswat Brahmins (GSBs) came to Karnataka in search of place food and shelter. They paid a visit to all the places along the coastline. Some of them settled in Karwar, Ankola, Kumta, Bhatkal, Shirali and so on. Few of them went to Kerala side and settled in Ernakulam, Cochin, Manjeshwar etc. Rest of the others went to Udupi and Dakshina Kannada (which was previously under Mysore State). These GSBs came and settled in Pandya Nagari of Jains between 1400 AD and 1450 AD (now been called as Karkala). They brought with them all their articles and household items which included idol of Lord Venkataramana. The first GSB to enter Karkala was Soire Prabhu whose great grandson is K. Ramesh Prabhu the present trustee of the temple. They are also called as the first citizen of Karkala. One more family who migrated from Goa along with Prabhu's were the Soma Sharmas. He was a priest in Tirupathi Temple. Prabhus started their life in Karkala as usual how they used to live in Goa with all the rites and rituals. Their priests joined them.
Some of the GSBs came to this place wandering from place to place for shelter and food. They met the Jain kings and they told them about Prabhus, Sharmas and GSB priests. They gave these people permission to stay with them. One fine day all these GSBs came to Jain King Immadi Bhairava, asking for a land to build a temple for Lord Sree Venkataramana in 1450 AD. The Jain king happily gave them the land for the very same purpose with some black stones which were prevalent in the area. This shows that the Jains patronised other religions. The land which they gave to the GSBs was occupied by a lady of some Mutt (religious institution for learning Vedas and Puranas). The lady heeded to the people and Jains only one condition that
"There are four powerful Ganas [Lord Shiva's servants] who should be worshipped and given sacrifices of coconuts, green pumpkins, Turmeric and so on; unless they would get angry. Also an yearly sacrifice should be performed as no unholy things may happen in and around here."
The Gaud Saraswat Brahmins and the Jain king openly said yes to lady, and the temple was being built. Initially a huge platform was built and four pillars were made to stand in the corners. Entangled coconut leaves were made as a roof. The idol was installed inside and prayed for the betterment of people. The compound wall was in its progress for building up the blocks. Soma Sharma returned to Karkala from Tirupathi with another idol of Lord Sree Venkataramana which was given to him by the Tirumala priests at the end of the 14th century. He installed this idol with the previously installed idol of Lord Venkataramana in the newly built stone platform.
During 1500 AD, some dacoits attacked Karkala and started stealing all the gold and silver ornaments and idols. Karkala GSBs got scared about these bad events. They made up their mind and took all their precious articles with the two idols and ran away to some other place. They asked the Jain kings to protect their area. The king promised them and gave 100% moral support. Karkala GSBs reached an area called Mulki where threw all the materials they had with them in a well. In Karkala there was a huge fight going on between Jain rulers and the dacoits. At last the dacoits had to run away from Karkala since they had been defeated. As the happenings cooled down Karkala GSBs returned to the well and tried to retrieved all the idols and articles. But they could not retrieve the idol which Soma Sharma had brought with him. They got depressed and returned to Karkala. One morning, a Mulki person was passing near the well and found something shining. He went down and tried to look at it. It was the same idol the Karkala people were searching for. He thought Lord must have made his mind to stay in Mulki, so he took it and made a plan install it in Sree Veera Vittal Temple of Mulki established by Soira Vittal Bhat.
As soon as Karkala GSBs received this news in few days, they rushed to Mulki. But by that time Mulki people had installed it in the temple. The Karkala GSBs stayed there and slept over. That night the idol (Lord Venkataramana installed at Mulki) appeared in their dream and said
"You all please go to Karkala and stay there, don't get frustrated or depressed because of this event. I will come again to your place and stay there; a Saint from Tirumala Tirupati will be coming to Karkala with me. There will be Sampurna Sannidhi [meaning that the idol would be having powerful grace of Tirupathi] in me. Install it with the idol which you have at present in your temple."
The very next morning they met Mulki residents, told them about the dream, and went back to Karkala with a hope that Tirupathi Sreenivasa would come.
Months passed by while the GSBs waited. One day an old person arrived in Karkala with a bag on his shoulder and dressed as a hermit. He asked for a place to take rest with the Gaud Saraswat Brahmins. They gave him a small place to stay. He had some idol of Lord Vishnu which he used to take it with himself for a pilgrimage. That night when everyone was in deep sleep a strange dream appeared for the GSBs and the saint. Lord of Tirupathi was the main character in the dream. For GSBs the dream was, "Devotees of mine I have already come over here as I promised. The saint who came to this place has come Tirumala and the idol which he has is mine. You take the idol from him and install it but as per my instructions. During the ceremony a cow and her calf should be left for feeding after pooja. The place where the cow drops her milk after milking the calf will be my scared place. Do all these things first and then rest leave it to me." For the saint the dream appeared as, "Oh Saint you have travelled much in your life and now its time for you to take rest in your life. I like this place very much and want to stay here for the rest of the time. The people from whom you asked the land are in need of me as I had promised them that I would come from Tirumala Tirupathi and stay in this place. So please hand over me to them." The saint agreed to Lord's wishes and very next morning went to GSB people to hand over the idol with one condition. His condition was,"Any offerings given to Lord almighty would be taken to Tirupathi occasionally and Lord would be taken to Tirupathi once a year." They agreed to hermits condition and installed the idol as per Lord's instructions. This installation was on the day 25 April 1537.
Slowly and steadily the temple got built up with its Garbha Griha (sanctum sanctorum). The whole temple got renovated in 1699–1700. Then Parivar Devas like Lord Mukyaprana, Lord Gaurda, Lord Lakshmi and Lord Ganapathi were installed after two years of renovation. The number of devotees entering this gradually increased due to the divine environment of this place.
Rites and ritualsSince this temple is related to Tirumala it follows the same rituals as in Tirupathi Temple. In the morning at 6:00 (in some cases it is 5:30 am during Ashwija month) the temple doors are opened with Dwara Pooja and Suprabhatam. Dwara Pooja is performed for the door keepers Jaya-Vijaya (in Vishnu Loka they represent DwaraPaalakaas).
Suprabhatam is a special slokha recited to wake up the Lord from his sleeps. Then after the end of Suprabhata Nirmala Visarjana (removal of old flowers and decoration of new ones to deities) is performed with Ganji Naivedyam (serving of rice and rice item foods, including Navaneetham mixture of butter, til and sugar) at about 6:30 am. At 10:00 am Panchaamrutha abhishekha is performed for the Saligrama. This abhishekha is a typical one as performed in Tirupathi. In Tirumala this is performed on Lord Venkateshwara's stone statue and to honour the same here it is performed on the Saligrama.
At noon Naivedyam is performed wherein several items are served for the Lord in a huge plate and utensil made out of copper. Once the Naivedya is over little bit of rice is served in small utensils and is kept in front of Parivar Devas while one is offered to Sree Veeramaruthi Temple. After this Maha Puja is performed at 1:00 pm, this is called Raajopchaara Puja. The temple doors are closed after this for Vishrama Seva.
In the evening at about 6:00, temple doors are again opened with lighting of oil lamps. A special shlokha is sung called as "Deevtige Salaam Shlokham." Cassettes of bhajans are played on loudspeakers at this divine time of sunset. At 6:30 people from all over the town come to temple to sing the hymns of Lord Almighties, and this goes on until 8:00 pm.
At 8:00 again Naivedyam is offered with Mangalaarthi. Once Mangalaaarthi finishes, night Utsava is offered. This is usually an outing to the town except on Amavasya and Ekadashi. Once Utsava returns to temple there are five rounds inside; the first one is Vaadya Sutthu (instrumental), second and third is Rigveda and Yajurveda Sutthu, fourth is Sangeetha Sutthu (Yakshagana's Thaala Maddhale) and last one is Sarva Vaadya Sutthu. After the utsav ends with Vasantha Puja (Lord is given Uyaala Seva with recitals of shlokhas) deities are put to sleep which is known as Ekaantha Seva (11:30pm or on festive days depends on time taken).
Income and economyThe income for this temple mainly comes from the Kaanikas (money) given as offering to the Lord by devotees. Also the temple owns houses which are currently offered on rent and few lands which are given on lease, so finances are higher through these resources. Srinivasa Kalyana Mantapa, which is one of the halls built by the temple are given for rent for cultural programs, weddings, Brahmopadesham and the rents collected also adds to the income. Devotees offer funds towards the temple and some of them give yearly donations while some devotees register for longtime funds.
Other important religious sites in KarkalaKarkala is very famous for its Gomateshawra Betta and Jain Basadis. There are many other things which are popular all over the town. One of them is Padutirupathi Sree Venkataramana Temple. This is one of the oldest temple of Gaud Saraswat Brahmins after Sri MadhaAnantheshwar Temple Manjeshwar. A powerful shrine resembling Tirupathi.
- Sri Mahalakshmi Temple ( Renovated recently in Mahalakshmi Lane )
- Sri Ramanath Shanteri Kamakshi Temple (Near Sri Bhuvanendra Collage)
- Gommateshwara Betta.
- Chathurmukha Basadi.
- Hiriyangadi Basadi.
- Padmavathi Kere Basadi.
- Shree Ananthashayana Temple.
- Shree Mariamma Mukhaprana Temple.
- Shree Mahalingeshwara Tenmple.
- Shree Umamaheshwara Temple.
- Shree Krishna Temple.
- Shree Siddhivinayaka Temple.
- Shree Raghavendra Swamy Temple.
TransportationState and national highways are the main mode of transportation in Karkala. The closest airports and railroads are in Bajpe in Mangalore and Indrali in Udupi,
Roads connectedKarkala is connected to 3 major state roads and one major highway:
- National Highway NH 13 (Solapur-Karkala-Mangalore via Shimoga)
- State Highway SH 1 (Karkala-Nitte-Padubidri) which is also connected to National Highway 66 at Padubidri
- State Highway SH 37 (Karkala-Bailur-Manipal-Udupi)
- State Highway SH 1 (Karkala-Hebri-Agumbe, Thirthalli)
Panchalingeshwara temple, Govindanahalli, Karnataka
As the name says, it has 5 Shiva lingams. Most other Pancha linga temples by the Hoysalas have been destroyed.
It also has idols of Vishnu and his avatars, Ganesha and Parvati.
Pattadakal Temple, Karnataka
Pattadakal (Kannada - ಪಟ್ಟದ್ಕಲ್ಲು, Pattadakalu) is a village in Karnataka. It lies on the banks of the Malaprabha River in Bagalkot district. It is 22 km from Badami and about 10 km from Aihole. It is well known for its historic temples.
World Heritage siteThe group of 8th century monuments in Pattadakal are the culmination of the earliest experiments in the vesara style of Hindu temple architecture. The town displays both Dravidian (Southern) and the Nagara (Northern, Indo-Aryan) styles of temple architecture.
HistoryPattadakal (place for Chalukyas Coronation), the capital of the Chalukya dynasty of Southern India, who built the temples in the 7th and 8th centuries. There are ten temples including a Jain sanctuary surrounded by numerous small shrines and plinths. Four temples were built in Chalukya Dravidian style, four in Nagara style of Northern India and the Papanatha temple in mixed style.
•The place is a village and an important tourist centre in the state and is located on the left bank of the Malaprabha River and is 22 km from Badami and 514 km from Bangalore.
•It is a great centre of Chalukyan art, noted for its temples and inscriptions. According to inscriptions, the place was known by the names Kisuvolal (Red Town) or Pattada Kisuvolal. The literary work Hammira Kavya of 1540. quotes the place as Pattashilapura and Hammirapura. It has been mentioned in the 11th and 12th century inscriptions, as well as in the literary work Singirajapurana of 1500 and Hammira Kavya as the place where the Chalukya kings were crowned.
•The place continued to be an important centre under the Rashtrakutas and the Kalyana Chalukyas. It became a chief city for a small region called Kisukadu-70. The Sindhas of Yaramabarige (Yelburgi) also ruled it for some time.
•There are in all 10 major temples here, nine Shiva and one Jaina, situated along the northern course of the River, which is considered as very auspicious according to Holy Scriptures.
Chalukya style of architectureThe Chalukya style originated in Aihole (450), Architects experimented with different styles, blended the Nagara and Dravidian styles, and evolved their own distinctive style. At Pattadakal, the Chalukya kings were crowned, in the middle of the 7th century, temple building activity shifted from Badami to Pattadakal. There are 10 temples here, 4 are in Nagara style and 6 are in Dravidian style.
Kannada InscriptionThere are numerous Kannada language inscriptions at Pattadakal. Important among them; at Virupaksha Temple, there is 8th (733–745) century Old Telugu inscription on victory pillar, in the Sangameshvara temple, there exists a large inscription tablet (696-733) describing grants made by King Vijayaditya for the construction of the temple.
Groups of monuments
Virupaksha TempleThe best known is the Virupaksha temple, built by Queen Lokamahadevi (Trilokyamahadevi)in 745 to commemorate her husband's victory (Vikramaditya II) over the Pallavas of Kanchi. The Virupaksha temple is rich in sculptures like those of Lingodbhava, Nataraja, Ravananugraha and Ugranarasimha. Virupaksha is the earliest dated temple with the sukanasika, being closely followed by the Mallikarjuna temple.
• Another temple that of Sangameshvara, is in Dravidian style, and perhaps the oldest among the temples at this place, and consists of a sanctum, inner passage and navaranga. The sanctum and inner passage are enclosed by a path way for pradakshina, which has several lattices of different design, sculptured on the outer walls various figures like Ugranarasimha and Nataraja. The navaranga has 20 pillars in four rows. Its exterior walls have stone carved figures. The sanctum has a Dravidian tower. According to an inscription in Kannada dated 1162, it was built by the Early Chalukya king Vijayaditya and was named Vijayeshvara.
• To the north of the Virupaksha temple lies the Mallikarjuna which was formerly known as Trailokeshvara. It is in close proximity with the Sanghameshvara temple in design, construction and sculpture, but smaller in size. The porch has a beautiful image of Narasimha killing Hiranyakashipu and two female idols. Here are two grand images on both the sides of the entrance to the navaranga. The eighteen pillars of the navaranga have figures pertaining to Ramayana, Mahabharatha and those representing social conditions of those days. On the ceiling are beautiful figures of Gajalakshmi and Shiva-Parvathi with Nandi. On the external walls are sculptures like Shiva, Nandi, Lakulisha, Nataraja, etc. This temple was built by Trailokya Mahadevi, the queen of Vikramaditya II.'
•There is a Jaina temple on the Pattadakal-Badami road. It consists of a mukhamantapa, a navaranga, shukanasa and garbhagriha. Its construction may be of the 9th century.
•Galaganatha Temple lies to the north of the Virupaksha and faces the west. It has a navaranga, shukanasa and the sanctum with a linga. Around the sanctum is the circuit path way. In several niches are small figures of Kubera, Gajalakshmi and others. On the external wall niche of the circuit path way is a fine figure of Shiva. The rekhanagara style tower over the temple is very fine. It seems to have been constructed during the first half of the 8th century.
•Papanatha Temple is located to the south of the Virupaksha has a portico, main hall, big antechamber and the sanctum with encircled path way. At the doorway of the inner hall are idols of door-keepers, Nandi and Virabhadra. There are 16 pillars in the main hall, which have fine figures of couples and carved figures of females. The ceiling has impressive figures of Shiva-Parvathi with Vishnu and the gandharvas. To the north-west, on the wall is a notable figure of a royal court. Amorous couples and decorative carvings are found in several parts of the temple. On the external walls are figures of lion and elephant riders and Ramayana scenes. The temple appears to have built in stages. The sanctum has a rekhanagara tower. The temple appears to have built in 680.
• To the left of the Sangameshvara is the small Chandrashekhara temple. Its architectural style is very simple, without any idols or fragile carvings. This small shrine consists of sanctum with a Shivalinga and a small hall. Only one idol of doorkeeper remains now.
• Behind the Galaganatha temple is the shrine of Jambulinga. It has a sanctum with a shukanasa and a navaranga. At the doorway of the shukanasa are idols of Shiva’s guards Nandi and Virabhadra. In the shrine is the linga. The outer wall niches of the sancyum have idols of Shiva (Lakulisha) and Vishnu. It has a small rekhanagara tower.
•To the north, Very close to the jambulinga shrine, is the shrine of Kadasiddheshvara. In size and architecture it is similar to that of Jambulinga. There are several well executed idols of Shiva, Parvathi and Vishnu and other divinities on the outer wall.
•To the north of the Mallikarjuna temple is the temple of Kashi-Vishveshvara of which only the sanctum and a passage is left. On the pillars of the inner passage, female figures are engraved in high relief. On the ceiling, Somaskanda is represented. Its sanctum has a rekhanagara tower. The structure is presumably of the 8th century.
• Apart from these major temples, several small Shiva shrines are seen here.
• According to the inscription on a Shaiva stone pillar found near the Virupaksha, Sangameshvara and Mallikarjuna temples, this pillar with a trident emblem was put up by Jnana Shivacharya, who hailed from Mrigathanikahara, on the north bank of the Ganges. It also states about the gift of land by him to the Vijayeshvara.
•The abundance of Shiva temples here clearly indicates that the place was a great Shaiva centre in ancient times.
Polali Rajarajeshwari Temple, Polali, Karnataka
Polali Rajarajeshwari Temple is a temple located in Polali, Dakshina Kannada district in Karnataka. The primary deity of the temple is Shri Rajarajeshwari. The temple was constructed in the 8th century AD by King Suratha and has been developed by many dynasties which ruled over the region. The idol of Shri Rajarajeshwari is completely moulded from clay with special medicinal properties. The temple portrays Hindu architecture with roofs adorned with wooden carvings of gods and copper plates. Daily and special poojas are conducted in the temple under the auspices of the head priest K. Rama Bhat. Annual festivals are held in the temple with much fanfare. Polali Chendu festival is an important festive event where football is played to represent the fight of good over evil. The Chendu festival is followed by the annual festival in March, which lasts for a month and is attended by people from all over the world.
LocationThe temple is located in Polali on the banks of the river Phalguni in Kariyangala village of Bantwal taluk, Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka The temple is surrounded by lush paddy fields. The Phalguni river flows on the northern side of the temple. The nearest city from the temple is Mangalore at 19 kms away.
EtymologyThe place where the temple was located was known as Pural in ancient times. The word Pural means Flute in Tulu language The origin of the word Pural is the Mugera language. The word Pural or Purel also has the meaning of changing sides, which may also apply in this case as the river takes an abrubt turn near the temple. In Sanskrit, it was referred to as Paliapura, which later came to be known as Polali in Kannada. In several ancient epigraphs and records, the main deity of the temple was referred to as Porala Devi
HistoryThe temple has been referred to in many ancient inscriptions, including the Markandeya Purana, Ashoka inscriptions and travel accounts of ancient travellers. According to an inscription discovered in the vicinity of the temple, the temple around the clay idol was built in 8th century AD. It is a widely held belief that the temple was built by King Suratha, and that the king offered his own crown, studded with precious jewels, to be placed on the head of the deity. The king, having lost most of his kingdom in a war and being betrayed by his own ministers, is believed to have taken refuge under a sage named Sumedha in forests located around what is the location of the temple now. The clay idol of the main deity in the temple is historically believed to be upto 5000 years old. The king is reported to have carved the clay idol of Shri Rajarajeshwari himself and offered penance to the deity in return for his kingdom. Many ancient inscriptions alluding to the temple were reported around the temple, but were lost over time time primarily due to the neglect of their keepers. The remaining inscriptions, which are available today were obtained in kariyangala village, Ammunje and in the temple itself and is now under custody of the Karnataka Government.
The region surrounding the temple were ruled by many dynasties including Kadamba, Chalukya, Alupa, Rashtrakoota, Hoisala, Vijayanagara, Ikkeri, Mysore etc. Most of these dynasties spent a lot of resources on this temple and donated agricultural lands for the benefit of the temple. Kings from the Alupa dynasty, which ruled the region aroung 710 AD to 720 AD were particularly noted to have contributed to the development of the temple and to have encouraged the worship of Shri Rajarajeshwari in the region. In later years, Queen Chennammaji of Keladi is reported to have visited the temple and gifted the temple with a grand chariot.
ArchitectureRecords written by Abdul Razzak in 1448 suggest that the temple was initially built from molten brass. He recorded that the temple had four platforms. An image of the deity, 5 to 6 feet in height, with red rubies for eyes were present on the highest of the platforms. Today, the idol of the main deity, Shri Rajarajeshwari is a stucco image of the deity with a height of 10 feet. The clay used for making the idol was specially prepared with herbal mixtures for added strength The temple also has smaller idols for other deities including Subramanya, Bhadhrakali, Mahaganapathi and Saraswathi. During a relogious event named Lepashta Gandha, the idols are coated with a special soil mixture with eight medicinal properties once every 12 years. The soil used for coating was prepared hundreds of years ago and not prepared freshly on each occasion The roof of Mukhamantapa, a section of the temple has many Gods and Godesses exquisitely carved in wood. The roofs of other sections of the temple like the Dhwajastambha, the Garbagriha and the Pillar of lights are covered in copper plates.
PoojasRecords written by Abdul Razzak in 1448 suggest that the temple was initially built from molten brass. He recorded that the temple had four platforms. An image of the deity, 5 to 6 feet in height, with red rubies for eyes were present on the highest of the platforms. Today, the idol of the main deity, Shri Rajarajeshwari is a stucco image of the deity with a height of 10 feet The clay used for making the idol was specially prepared with herbal mixtures for added strength The temple also has smaller idols for other deities including Subramanya, Bhadhrakali, Mahaganapathi and Saraswathi During a relogious event named Lepashta Gandha, the idols are coated with a special soil mixture with eight medicinal properties once every 12 years. The soil used for coating was prepared hundreds of years ago and not prepared freshly on each occasion. The roof of Mukhamantapa, a section of the temple has many Gods and Godesses exquisitely carved in wood. The roofs of other sections of the temple like the Dhwajastambha, the Garbagriha and the Pillar of lights are covered in copper plates.
Poojas are conducted on a daily basis and during special occasions. The Head Priest of the temple is K. Rama Bhat. He is responsible for the daily and special poojas. The daily poojas include the morning pooja, which is conducted at 8.30 AM, the noon Mahapooja, which is conducted at 12.30 PM and the night pooja, conducted at 8.30 pm.
Poojas conducted on special occasions are as follows:
- Simha Sankramana
- Souramana Ugadi
- 4th day of Bhadrapada Shukla
- Kadiru Habba
- Kartika Bahula Padya
- Laksha Deepotsava (on new moon day of the Karthika month)
- Subramanya Panchami and Shashti Festivals
- Mahashivarathri Festival
- Annual Festival (on Sankranthi day of the Meena month)
Polali Chendu festivaThe Polali Chendu festival, also known as the football festival, is a widely popular football game which is conducted for a period of five days during the annual temple festival, seven days before avabritha. The football, which is a leather ball, is made by a cobbler family in Mijar. An oil miller family from Kadapu Karia is given the responsibility of bringing the ball from the cobbler family, wherein they announce the date of the commencement of the game after they place the ball in the freshly cleaned frontyard of Malali Ballal. On the evening of the first day of the family, the cobbler family place the ball and a palm leaf umbrella on the gopuram of the temple. After offering prayers to the deity, the ball is taken to the football field and the game is commenced. Upto five hundred people compete in the games, though any number of people may compete. The objective of the game is to get the ball to the opposition's side. The game historically represents the fight of good over evil and the car festival at the end of the games are said to represent the victory of the good over the evil.
An annual festival is celebrated at the temple during the month of March.The festival lasts for one month. During the festival the idol of the temple deity is placed on a circular crown called Prabhavathi, which is beautifully decorated for the purpose. On the 4th day of the festival, the idol is placed on Simhasana Katte, a platform approximately 100 metres from the temple and a special pooja is performed.
Om Tat Sat
(My humble salutations to the great devotees , wikisources and Pilgrimage tourist guide for the collection )