Holy Pilgrimage – Temples in Odisha (Orissa) State
Devasabha Temple, Bhubaneswar
Devasabha Temple is located in the Kharakhia Vaidyanath temple precinct, Old Town area of Bhubaneswar. This is an abandoned temple and is facing towards the east. There is no deity inside the cella. As per the locals, the temple is the assembly of all gods and goddess for which it is known as Devasabha.
ArchitectureThe temple is dated back to 14th century A.D with Rekha deul topology. It is in the southwest corner of Kharakhia Vaidyanatha precinct; 5.00 metres from the southern and western compound wall. The temple is facing east. It stands on a low and square platform measuring 5.50 square metres with a height of 0.60 metres.
On plan, Devasabha Temple has a square sanctum measuring 4.00 metres with a frontal porch of 0.90 metres. It is pancharatha as distinguished by a central raha and pair of anuratha and kanika pagas on either sides of the raha. On elevation, the vimana is of Rekha order that measures 5.73 metres in height from pabhaga to mastaka. From bottom to the top Devasabha Temple has a bada, gandi and mastaka. With fivefold divisions of the bada the temple has a panchanga bada measuring 2.43 metres in height. At the bottom the pabhaga has four base mouldings of khura, kumbha, pata and basanta that measures 0.58 metres tala jangha and upara jangha measures 0.50 metres and 0.53 metres in height respectively separated by a three moulded bandhana measuring 0.25 metres in height. The baranda measuring 0.57 metres have five mouldings. The gandi and mastaka measures 2.25 metres and 1.05 metres in height and is devoid of sculptural embellishments.
Raha niche and parsva devatasThe Parsvadevata niches are located in the talajangha of raha pagas on the three sides, i.e., west, north and south that measures 0.76 metres in height x 0.55 metres in width x 0.20 metres in depth. The doorjamb measuring 1.79 metres in height and 1.20 metres in width has two plain vertical bands. The right side doorjamb is partially broken.
Dishisvara Siva Temple, Bhubaneswar
Dishisvar Siva Temple is located in Bhubaneswar. The presiding deity is a Siva-lingam within a circular yonipitha installed inside the sanctum.
Physical descriptionThis 15th-century, privately owned temple is situated within a private compound surrounded by private residential buildings on three sides of east, west, south and the road on the north.
Laterite has been used as the building material with the dry masonry construction technique and the kalingan style.
Present stateThe temple is in a dilapidated state, due to the growth of vegetation all over the superstructure and the surrounding area. Cracks are noticeable in the roof and in the conjunction of the pagas. The temple was repaired by State Archaeology during X and XI Finance Commission Award.
Dolagovinda Siva Temple, Bhubaneswar
Dolagovinda Siva temple, also known as Vaidyanatha Siva temple, is located at the Rathagada Chowk, Old Town of Bhubaneswar. The presiding deity is Siva lingam within a circular yonipitha installed inside the sanctum. This 15th-16th century temple is a living temple and Laxmidhara Praharaja is the chief priest of the temple. It is known as Dolagovinda Siva on account of its proximity to the DolaMandapa situated in its front across the road.
Locals ascribe the temple to the Kesharis who were otherwise known as Somavamsis. But the scheme of architecture does not conform to the Somavamsis. Rituals like Chatturdasi, Sivaratri and Kartika purnima are performed.
Emara Matha, BhubaneswarEmara Matha(Location: Lat. 20° 14’ 66” N, Long. 85° 50’ 15” E., Elev. 58 ft.) is located in the north-eastern embankment of Bindu Sarobara (tank), north west of the Uttaresvara temple precinct in Bhubaneswar. It is on the left side of the Kedaragouri lane leading from Kedara-Gouri temple to Vaital temple (Tinimundia deul). This Matha was originally a branch of the Emar Matha of Puri that belongs to Ramanuja sect. It is now used as fire wood godown and is a dilapidated . Detailed documentation of the Matha could not be possible as the present occupants opposed and resisted any such activities.
Emar Matha or Embar Mutt is located in the south-eastern corner of Jagannath Temple, Puri outside the main Prakara near Kalikadevi Sahi.
HistoryRamanujacharya while coming to Puri established this Mutt. It is said that Govindacharya (Govinda Jeeyar) was the first pontif of this matha. Govindacharya was given the name Emperumannar, which means my lord in Tamil. Some of the disciples argued that if they call Govindacharya "my lord" then it may insult their Guru and Narayana, so Ramanuja changed his name to Embar. It is noteworthy that Govindacharya was a cousin brother of Srimad Ramanuja, and he saved Ramanuja from Yadavaprakasha's conspiracy. The matha houses images of Krishna and Radha along with Rama parivaar.
ArchaeologyThe doorjambs of Emar mutt are noteworthy to see. It has all features of Kalingan architecture. The mutt was renovated during Maratha ruling on Orissa. The followers of this mutt belong to Thengalai sect of Srivaishnava sampradaya.
Approximately 18 tonnes of ancient silver treasure has been recovered from the mutt.
Gandhi Garabadu Precinct Vishnu Temple, Bhbaneswar
Gandhi Garabadu Precinct Vishnu Temple is a Vishnu temple is located in the Gandhi Garabadu Precinct,Old Town, Bhubaneswar. It is situated on the right side of the temple road branching from Garej Chowk to Lingaraj temple. It is about 70.00 metres east of Lingaraja, 200 metres south of Ananta Vasudeva temple and about 30 metres south-east of Depada-hara tank. The temple is facing towards the west. The garbhagriha of the temple is empty. But the cult icons on the outer walls and the dvarapalas in the door jamb, suggests that the temple was originally dedicated to Lord Vishnu.The temple is made of ochre and grey sand stone. The sanctum is 0.26 metres below the present ground level.
The TempleThe temple is a 12th -13th Century A.D. with fivefold mouldings, arrangement of rekha angasikharas like Rajarani, and the arrangements of consorts of dikpalas on the upara jangha.
SignificanceHistoric significance: Local people ascribed the temple to the Kesaris. But the architectural features conform to the Gangas.
Physical descriptioni) Surrounding: This temple situated within the eastern end of Gandhi Garabadu precinct and north of Kartikesvara Siva temple.
ii) Orientation: The temple is facing towards west.
iii) Architectural features (Plan and Elevation): On plan, the temple has a square vimana measuring 6.85 metres with a frontal porch of 0.65 metres. The cella measures 2.73 square metres. It is a pancharatha temple as distinguished by a central raha and pairs of anuratha and kanika pagas on either sides of the raha. On elevation, the vimana is of rekha order that measures 10.83 metres in height from pabhaga to the kalasa. From bottom to top the temple has a bada, gandi and mastaka. With fivefold divisions of the bada the temple has a panchanga bada measuring 3.38 metres in height. At the bottom the pabhaga has five base mouldings that measures 0.75 metres in height but the khura is buried.Jangha measures 0.75 metres, bandhana consists of three mouldings measures 0.28 metres and baranda measurings 0.85 metres has thick of five mouldings.The gandi measures 5.45 m'trs in height is decorated with a series of miniature rekha deul in all side above the pagas. The mastaka measuring 2.00 metres has components like beki, amlaka, khapuri and kalasa is broken.
iv) Raha niche & parsva devatas: The raha niches measuring 1.00 metres x 0.45 metres X 0.26 metres in height, width and depth are all empty. The raha niches are a set of tala garvika mouldings. The niches on either side are flanked by a pair of octangular pilasters on either side. The space in between the pilasters are occupied by graceful salabhanjika. The talajangha houses dikpalas in the niches of kanika paga and 'nayikas in the niches of the anuratha pagas, whereas the upara jangha kanika pagas house the dikpalikas (female counter parts of the dikpalas) and erotic sculptures in the anuratha niches.
v) Decorative features:
Door Jambs: The doorjambs are carved with three vertical bands of lata sakha, puspa sakha and patra sakha from exterior to interior. The lintel is broken. At the base of the doorjambs there are dvarapala niches on either side. Both the dvarapalas hold bow in their left hand and parasu in their right hand.
Lintel: The Navagraha architrave measuring 1.98 metres is carved with the traditional navagrahas, each within a niche and seated in padmasana. Among the grahas, ketu is not clearly visible because of erosion and obliterations.
vi) Building material: Ochre and grey sand stone.
vii) Construction techniques: Dry masonry.
viii) Style: Kalingan
State of preservationGood/Fair/ Showing Signs of Deterioration/Advanced: Raha paga of the western wall has cracked up to the bisama that facilitates seepage of water into the Sanctum.
Condition descriptioni) Signs of distress: Kalasa is missing. The carvings in the exterior wall are heavily weathered due to rain water and poor quality of stone and poor maintenance.
ii) Structural problems: The khura portion of the pabhaga is buried and cracks are seen in raha paga.
iii) Repairs and Maintenance: The temple was repaired by the Orissa State Archaeology during X and XI Finance Commission Award.
Threats to the propertyConservation Problem and Remedies: Though the monument is important from architectural and art point of view it is in a state of gross neglect. Because of unwarranted encroachments from all sides it is not easily accessible and even difficult for viewing. Alternative and independent approach may be provided for public viewing. The temple is a near cousin of Rajarani in terms of its architectural features and decorations.
Detached Sculptures: An Udyota simha, a broken fragment of the raha pagas of western wall are found just in front of the entrance to the temple.
Compound Wall: The monument may be made independent of Gandhi Garabadu and Narayana Mohapatra who claims joint ownership by laying common compound wall across the middle of the temple, thereby dividing the monument into two halves.
Gangesvara Siva Temple, Bhubaneswar
Gangesvara Siva Temple (lat. 20° 14’27” N., long. 85° 50’ 12”E., elev. 73 ft) is situated within a precinct on the left side of the Ganges–Yamuna road (leading from Talabazar Chowk to the Ganges-Yamuna temple) Old Town, Bhubaneswar. It is located at a distance of 200 metres north-east of Lingaraj temple, 50 metres north of Lakhesvara temple across the road, 200 metres south of Subarnesvara and 100 metres east of Gourisankar temple. The temple is facing towards east. The presiding deity is a Siva lingam within a circular yonipitha. It is a living temple and maintained by the Ganga Yamuna Sangathana.
LegendThere is a common belief among the local people that Goddess Parvati killed the demons Kirti and Basa in the Ekamra Kshetra. After this heroic incident, the deity felt thirsty. In order to quench the thirst, Lord Shiva struck his trident into the earth. A spring came out and to consecrate the spring river goddess Ganga and Yamuna were invited. To commemorate the incident twin temples of Gangesvara and Yamunesvara were constructed during the Ganga rule in Orissa. However, the present monument is a later renovation over the original shrine as evident from the use of earlier building materials used in a non-schematic manner and depiction of sculptures of later period in the jangha
Ghanteswara Siva Temple, Bhubaneswar
Ghanteswara Siva Temple is located in the Kapileswara precinct. The enshrined deity is a Siva-lingam over a square yonipitha made of laterite. The temple has a vimana in pidha order. It is triratha on plan. The temple is facing towards west. The total height of the temple is 2.83 m. (bada 1.13 m, gandi 1.00 m and mastaka 0.70 m). The gandi has three tiers. The doorjambs measure 0.82 m in height x 0.41 m in width. The cella measure 0.90 square m, whereas the temple measure 1.53 square m. There is an inscription in the lalatabimba. The temple is surrounded by Bhoga-mandapa of Kapileswara temple in north. At a distance of 15.50 m, Rosasala pathway in east, Dutiya Kapileswara temple in the west at a distance of 8.40 m and Gupteswar temple in south at a distance on 6.45 m.
Gosagaresvar Siva Temple, Bhubaneswar
Gosagaresvar Siva Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to god Shiva located in the city of Bhubaneswar in Orissa, India. There are three Hindu shrines dedicated to Shiva within the walls of the temple complex.
Gosagarsevara Mandapa, Bhubaneswar
This Mandapa is located within the Gosagaresvara siva temple precinct, Old Town, Bhubaneswar. It is a lofty platform (Mandapa) provided with a flight of steps. There are sixteen pillars that support the superstructure of the flat roof. Construction of a Mandapa within a precinct is a feature of Orissan temple ritual and architecture. These Mandapas usually have sixteen pillars which are also noticed in the Hazari Mandapa in Kapilesvara temple precinct, Jalesvara Mandapa in the Jalesvara temple precinct of Kalarahanga and MuktiMandapa in the Jagannatha temple precinct of Puri.
Tradition & legendsDuring Durgastami which is held in the month of September–October, Lord Lingaraja visits Gosagarsvara precinct to cleanse his sins. After the ritual bath the lord pays his homage to lord Gosagaresvara and then comes to this Mandapa for public viewing where he is offered food.
Guptesvara Siva Temple, Bhubaneswar
Guptesvara Siva Temple is located within the Kapilesvara temple precinct, Kapilesvara village, Old Town, Bhubaneswar, the capital of the Indian state of Orissa (Lat. 20° 13’ 74” N., Long. 85° 49’ 65” E., Elev. 45 ft.).The enshrined deity is a Shiva lingam within a circular yoni pitha at the center of the sanctum. The temple was built in 14th -15th Century A.D. and now it is under the guidance of Kapilesvara Temple Trust Board. The local people ascribe the temple to the Gajapati period. Here Rituals like Sankranti and Sivaratri are observed.
SurroundingThe temple is surrounded by temple Kitchen in north and east, Chitresvara temple in west at a distance of 1.10 metres, Ghantesvara temple in south within a distance of 6.45 metres. The temple is facing towards west.
Current ScenarioRain water is seeping into the sanctum from all sides through cracks in the roof and walls. It was repaired by Orissa State Archaeology during X and XI Finance Commission Award and now maintained by the Kapilesvara Trust Board.
Hanuman Temple, Kedara-Gouri, BhubaneswarThe Hanuman Temple is located in the Kedara-Gouri temple precinct, Kedara-Gouri road, Old Town, Bhubaneswar. The enshrined deity is a two-armed Hanuman image. This temple is maintained by the Kedara-Gouri Trust Board. Architectural features indicate that the temple was built in the 15th or 16th century A.D. It is constructed in kalingan style with laterite stone.
SurroundingThe temple is surrounded by the Gouri Kunda to the south, the kitchen to the west, the compound wall to the east, and Shahasralinga to the north.
Architectural featuresThe temple stands on a low pista that measures 0.28 meters in height. On plan, the temple has a square vimana measuring 3.40 square meters. On elevation, the vimana is of pidha order that measures 5.50 meters in height having bada, gandi, and mastaka. The Bada is trianga that measures 2.00 meters (pabhaga 0.55 meters, jangha 0.87 meters, and baranda 0.58 meters). The Gandi consists of two tiers measuring 2.50 meters in height, and the mastaka is 1.00 meters.
Isanesvara Siva Temple, Bhubaneswar
sanesvara Siva Temple is a 13th century ad temple in Bhubaneswar (Lat. 20° 14’ 71" N,Long. 85° 49’ 96" E, Elev. 67 ft) in the state of Orissa, India. The time period of its construction is estimated from its architectural features and it is suggests the temple to ganga period. Isanesvara Siva temple is situated in the Goasagaresvartemple precinct. It is located on the left side of Ratha road (leading from Mausima Chowk to Badheibanka Chowk) old Town, Bhubaneswar. It is located at a distance of 1 km west of Lingaraja Temple and 1 km south of Ananta Vasudev, 300 metres south west of Ramesvara temple and 200 metres north west of Baitala Deula . The temple is facing towards east. The presiding deity is only a circular yon pitha. The lingam is missing.
This temple was used for worshipping in the past. It is presently in use and worshiping is done even today. Its cultural, social and historical significances are same as the Gosagaresvara temple. Its associational significance is its usage for public meeting.
OwnershipThis temple has multiple ownership and It is taken care by private persons namely Mahendra Garabadu and Bhaga Garabadu. Their residence is at Gosagaresvar Chowk, Old Town, Bhubaneswar.
SurroundingThe temple is surrounded by Paradaresvara temple in the west, Gosagaresvara temple in north-west and minor Siva temple in the south-west, Lingarajaa Mandapa in the northern side, and in the eastern side there is a modern compound and across wall there is a paddy field.
OrientationThe temple is facing towards East.
Jaleswar Siva Temple Precinct, BhubaneswarJalesvara Siva Temple Precinct is a Hindu Temple dedicated to Lord Siva situated on the southern outskirt of the village Kalarahanga at a distance of 2.00 km from Patia and 6.00 km south of Chudangagada in the northern outskirt of Bhubaneswar. The presiding deity is a Siva-lingam within a circular yonipitha inside the sanctum, which is 1.15 meters below the chandrasila. The Sanctum measures 2.00 square meters. It is a living temple.
LegendAccording to the prevalent legend the king of Chudangagada was a devout worshipper of lord Lingaraja. He used to visit Lingaraja every day. Since it was notpossible to commute to Lingaraja during the rainy seasons the lord advised him in a dream to construct a temple in the centre of a neighboring lotus pond where the lord himself dwells as a Jalasayi. The King complied with the desire of the lord by constructing the present temple, which is located on the western embankment of the Jalesvara pond. To conduct the rituals and other associated activities of the temple the King gave land grants to the Brahmins of Rahanga sasan and other Sevayatas. Hence the place is known as Kalarahanga.
SignificanceAccording to local tradition the temple was built by Padma Keshari, one of the Keshari rulers, which however does not conform to the genealogical table of the Somavamsis. Rituals like Siva Vivaha, Sivaratri, Janmastami, Dolapurnima, Sitalasasthi, Chandana Yatra, Pindadana and Dhanu Makara are observed. Various social functions like marriage ceremony, thread ceremony, mundanakriya and engagement are performed.
Physical descriptionA massive compound wall in all the four sides surrounds the temple. Beyond the compound wall Jalesvara pond in the east, paddy fields in the north and south sides and the approaching road in the western side. The adjoining depressions in the paddy fields indicate that originally the temple was surrounded by water on all the four sides which is attested by the local legend.
Kalabhairavi Temple, Bhubaneswar
Kalabhairavi Temple is located (Location Lat- 20°21’ 40”, Long- 85° 50’ 77”, Elev- 76 ft) within the Jaleswar Siva Temple Precinct, Kalarahanga. The enshrined deity is a four armed Chamunda sitting over a dead body. The deity holds a khatuanga in her upper right hand, a snake in upper left hand, a severed head in lower left hand and the lower right hand is broken. The deity is crowned with jatamukuta and wearing a garland of skull. The whole image rests over a pedestal measuring 0.50 metres in height.
Kalika Siva Temple, BhubaneswarBakresvara / Kalika Siva Temple / Tirthesvara Temple The Kalika Siva Temple (Lat- 200 13’ 74” N., Long- 850 49’ 65” E., Elev- 45 ft.) is located beyond the southern compound wall of Kapilesvara siva temple and close to the northern embankment of Manikarnika tank.The temple is facing towards west and the presiding deity of the temple is a Siva lingam within a circular yonipitha. The temple is made of sandstone. It was built around 10th / 11th Century A.D. The temple is facing towards west..
Kalikadevi Temple, Bhubaneswar
Kalikadevi Temple (Location: Lat. 20° 20’ 59” N., Long. 85° 49’ 67” E., Elev. 95 ft) is located in the Kancha Sahi, Old Town, Bhubaneswar. It is on the right side of the Temple road leading from Lingaraja Temple to Garej chowk. The enshrined deity is a four armed female divinity locally known as Kali.
Kapilesvara Siva Temple, BhubaneswarThe Kapilesvara Siva temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Siva located in the south western outskirt of the village Kapilesvara, Old Town, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. It is located at the end of Kapilesvara road leading from Lingaraj temple to Kapilesvara Village. The presiding deity is a Siva-lingam at the center of a circular yonipitha inside the sanctum. It is a living temple, facing towards east and maintained by Kapilesvara Temple Trust Board. The temple is situated within the precinct along with 33 other monuments. The precinct is located on the northern embankment of Manikarnika tank over an area of 44.00 square metres.
radition & legendsAccording to the local legend this is the birth place of sage Kapila, who is considered as the father of Sankhya Philosophy. He is also considered as the brain child of Brahma, an incarnation of Vishnu and lord Siva himself. Hence it is a sacred place where the shrine is dedicated to Lord Kapilesvara Siva.
The TempleThe dominant feature of the temple is the 60 foot high temple and its adjacent pond, surrounded by stone steps. The temple is a satellite of the main temple in Bhubaneswar, the Lingaraj temple. Both these temples, like other temples in India are centres of social, political, and educatioal activities. Until the middle of the 20th century, the temple dominated the economic, political and ritual life of the place. The temple was built during 14th Century A.D. during Suryavamsi rule of Kapilendra Deva. Inscription of Kapilendra deva and other architectural sculptural fragments suggest the original temple could be earlier than 11th Century A.D.
Architectural featuresThe entire temple was renovated at a later date with the building materials of the original one. The temple has a vimana (shrine), jagamohana, nata-mandira and bhoga-Mandapa. The vimana is in rekha order, jagamohana is pidha and nata-mandira and bhoga mandapa (hall) are flat roofed and of later constructions. The vimana (shrine) measuring 11.40 metres in height has usual bada, gandi and mastaka. The lower potala has five tiers and the upper poatala has four tiers in pyramidal elevation.
The parsvadevata (other deities) niches located on the raha paga of the tala jangha on the three sides of north, west and south and enshrine Parvati, Kartikeya and Ganesha respectively. The Talagarvika below the niche is decorated with a series of Khakhara mundis flanked by naga nagi pilasters. The niche is flanked by two pilasters that are carved with Kirtimukha at the center of the pilaster and the niche is crowned by Urdhagarvika. The western raha niche houses four armed Kartikeya standing in tribhanga over a lotus pedestal with his upper left hand is holding a cattle drum, the upper right hand is holding a trident and while the major left hand is holding a cock and right hand is in varadamudra. The image is crowned by jatamukuta and at the corners there are flying Vidyadharas and diminutive male worshipers at the base of the pedestal. The northern raha niche houses a four-armed Parvati standing over a lotus pedestal. The image is partly damaged. She is holding lotus in her major left hand and naga pasa in the uplifted left hand, major right hand is in varada mudra and the uplifted right hand is broken. Flanked by two diminutive female attendants holding sakti, the image has jatamukuta. The southern raha niche enshrines a four-armed Ganesha standing in tribhanga over a pedestal. His right hand is holding an akhyamala (rosary), left hand a Parasu while the uplifted left hand is holding a Modaka patra the uplifted right hand holds a tusk. The image has a Jatamukuta.
At the Lalatabimba there is a Gajalakshmi seated in lalitasana over a lotus pedestal. She holds lotus in her both hands; above the lotus two elephants are pouring water over the deity. At the base of the doorjambs and beneath the dvara sakhas there are two pidha mundi niches that house Saivate dvarapalas along with river goddesses of the Ganges and Yamuna mounted over their respective mounts.
Adi Kapilesvara ShrineAdi kapilesvara Siva Temple is located in the Kapileswara temple precinct and it is a living temple and facing west. The enshrined deity is a Siva lingam within a circular yonipitha (basement) made of black chlorite. The temple is surrounded by the precinct compound wall in east, Ghanteswar temple in west and Baidyanath temple in south. The temple has a vimana (shrine) depicting pancha ratha (five chariots) and a frontal porch. The gandi of the temple has set in three receding tiers. The mastaka consists of beki, ghanta, amlaka, khapuri, kalasa and ayudha.
Baidyanatha Siva TempleThe Baidyanatha Siva temple (Lat- 200 13’ 74” N., Long- 850 49’ 65” E., Elev- 45 ft.) is located in Kapilesvara temple precinct and the enshrined deity is a Siva lingam over a circular "yonipitha" (basement), made in sand stone. The temple is under the care and maintenance of Kapilesvara Temple Trust Board. According to local legend Lord Baidyanath is the god for curing ailments and diseases. So ailing people offer special prayer and surrender before the Lord when suffering from diseases. It was built around 18th Century A.D. The temple is facing towards west. There is an inscription on the lintel in the western wall. Written in Oriya script. The inscription has seven lines paleographically it can be ascribed to the 18th century A.D.
Beharana Mandapa / Baa-khia MandapaBeharana Mandapa or Baa khia Mandapa is located inside the Kapilesvara temple precinct. The Mandapa (hall) is provided with steps in the east and was built around 18th Century A.D. The ceiling that is made of wood is carved with various decorations like elephant, makara, and a series of lotus scroll work.
Bhandara Ghara ShrineBhandara Ghara Shrine is located in the Kapilesvara temple precinct and it is a living temple built during the 16th century A.D. It enshrines the chalanti pratima (movable deities) of Vishnu and Shiva. These deities are taken on procession on various festive occasions for public viewing.
Ghanteswara Siva TempleThis temple is located in the Kapileswara precinct and the enshrined deity is a Siva lingam over a square yonipitha (basement) made of laterite. The temple has a vimana in pidha order with a triratha (three chariots) on plan. The gandi has three tiers.
Guptesvara Siva temple
Bakresvara / Kalika Siva Temple / Tirthesvara TempleThe Kalika Siva Temple is located beyond the southern compound wall of Kapilesvara siva temple and close to the northern embankment of Manikarnika tank. The temple faces west and the presiding deity of the temple is Siva lingam within a circular yonipitha (basement). The temple is made of sandstone and was built around 10th / 11th Century A.D.
Laxmi Narayan TempleThe enshrined deity is Laxmi- Narayana seated in padmasana (lotus seat) over a lotus pedestal. The deity, Narayana has four arms holding conch in his upper right hand, a lotus in upper left hand and lower left hand is holding a mace. Laxmi is seated on his left lap. Both the images are crowned with Kirita mukuta. The temple has a vimana (shrine) in pidha order.
Siddhesvara Siva templeIt is located inside the Kapilesvara temple precinct and was built in the 15th century A.D. The temple faces east and the presiding deity of the temple is Siva lingam within a circular yonipitha (basement), which is made of laterite. The cella of vimana is made of sandstone and totally renovated one.
Sombara MandapaThe Vishnu Temple is located within the Kapilesvara temple precinct built in the 15th century A.D. The temple faces east and the presiding deities of this temple are two Vishnu images, and the image of Jagannatha, Balabhadra, Subhadra and Buddha.
Somabaresvara Siva TempleThe temple is located in the Kapilesvara temple precinct and the enshrined deity is a Sivalingam over a square yonipitha (basement) made of sand stone. The temple has a vimana in pidha order and it is triratha on plan s buried up to the baranda.
Kartikesvara Siva Temple, Bhubaneswar
Kartikesvara Siva Temple( Location: Lat. 20° 14’27” N., Long. 85° 50’ 12”E., Elev. 73 ft)is situated at a distance of about 100 mtrs from eastern gateway of Lingaraj temple. It is on the left side of the temple road leading from Lingaraja to Garej Chowk, Bhubaneswar, within the precinct of Gandhi Garabadu which is now under the Lingaraja Temple Administration.
Kedareswar Temple, Bhubaneswar
Kedareswar Temple, one of the eight Astasambhu Temples, is near the Mukteswar Temple, in Bhubaneswar, Orissa. The presiding deity is Lord Shiva, referred to locally by the name ‘Kedareshwar’. It is in the precinct of Kedara-Gouri on the right side of the road leading to Puri from Bhubaneswar and at a distance of 40 metres south of Muktesvara. It is one of the ten monuments within the precinct. It is the main temple of the complex. The temple is facing south and the enshrined deity is a circular yonipitha made of sandstone. The linga at the centre is missing. The sanctum is 2.5 square meters which is 0.8 meters below the present ground. It stands near the yard of the Mukteswar Temple.
LegendThere lived a couple named Kedar (male) and Gouri (female). They loved each other and decided to marry. The society was against the union, so it led them to flee from village. During the journey Gouri felt hungry, so Kedar went for food and was killed by a tiger. Later Gouri hearing this at this place jumped into the pond. The king of Utkal, Lalatendu Keshari, knowing this raised a temple named Kedareshawr or Kedargouri Temple. Still lovers come here to pray for a happy wedlock without any obstacles. The pond here is said to have some medicinal property.
Kharakhia Vaidyanatha Precinct, Bhubaneswar
Kharakhia Vaidyanatha Precinct is an Indian temple in Bhubaneswar. The chief priest of the shrine is the owner of the Kharakhia Vaidyanatha precinct.
ArchitectureKharakhia Vaidyanatha has a Siva lingam within a large circular yonipitha made of stone over a lofty platform that is now enshrined beneath a Pipal tree. There is no trace of superstructure over the lingam. The deity is so named because it is open to the sky with the sun rays falling directly over it throughout the day (Kharakhia). It is under regular worship. At a distance of 1.63 metres from the open shrine is an ancient circular well made of laterite block that measures 1.00 diameters.
Kotitirtha Tank, BhubaneswarKotitirtha Tank is located behind the Kotitirthesvara temple in the Kotitirthesvara lane, Old Town, Bhubaneswar. It is now under the care and maintenance of Kotitrithesvara Thakura Development Committee. The tank is enclosed within a masonry embankment made of dressed laterite blocks.
Tradition & legends Local people held the tank in high esteem as a sacred bathing place for cleansing the sins. The tank is used for various ritual practices like offering pinda and other ritual offerings. The temple tank is one of the panchatirthas, the other four being Ganga-Yamuna Kunda, Bindu sagar, Devi padahara, and Papanasini. The deity in the adjoining temple on the western embankment is named “Kotitirthesvara” after the sacred tank Kotitirtha. It is a natural spring.
Kukutesvara Siva Temple, BhubaneswarThe Kukutesvara Siva Temple or Kukutesvara Temple is a small, 1000-year old shrine to Shiva located in the "Temple City of India" Bhubaneswar, Orissa.
HistoryThe Kukutesvara Siva temple was constructed during the rule of the Somavamsi dynasty in approximately 975–1000 CE.
Local legends associate the temple with the Kesari dynasty (see East India for context). Located in the Tinimundia chowk which is in the old part of the city, the temple faces eastwards. The principal deity is a Shivalingam resting on a circular yonipitha facing north. The temple continues to be in use and is managed by two priests with events and rituals including Sankranti and abhisheka being observed
Labesvara Siva Temple, BhubaneswarLabesvara Siva Temple (Hanumantesvara) of 14th / 15th Century A.D Lat. 20°15’ 22” N.,Long. 85 °50’ 18” E., Elev. 84 ft
Approach: The twin temples of Kushesvara and Labesvara are situated on both the sides of the road, almost opposite to each other in close proximity to the Ramesvara temple on the right and Satrughnesvara group of temples on the left side of the road leading from Kalpana square to Bindhu Sagar. Labesvara Siva temple is situated on the right side of the Ramesvara or Mausima road leading from Kalpana square. It is a living temple and facing towards west. The enshrined deity is a Siva lingam within a circular yonipitha inside the sanctum.
Physical descriptioni) Surrounding: The temple is surrounded by Ramesvara temple in the west at a distance of 10.00 metres, Laxmanesvara group of Siva temple in the east at a distance of 30.00 metres across the road and Mausima chowk on its south at a distance of 50.00 metres.The temple is facing towards west.
ii) Orientation: Architectural features (Plan and Elevation): On plan, the temple has a vimana and a frontal porch. The vimana is 3.10 metres and frontal porch is 0.35 metres. On elevation, the temple is in pidha order and pancharatha on plan measuring 5.04 metres in height. The temple is partially buried; pabhaga measures 0.30 metres, jangha 1.08 metres and baranda 0.45 metres. Gandi has three tiers arranged in receding order measures 2.00 metres and mastaka 1.00 metres.
iii) Raha niche & parsva devatas: The parsvadevata niches measuring 0.51 metres x 0.31 metres x 0.19 metres houses Parvati in north, Kartikeya in east and Ganesa in south which are badly eroded.
iv) Decorative features: — Door Jambs: The doorjambs are carved with three vertical bands without any decoration that measures 1.45 metres in height and 0.56 metres in width. At the lalatabimba there is a Gajalaxmi image seated over a lotus pedestal in padmasana and her right hand is in varada mudra and left hand is holding lotus. The deity is flanked by two elephants pouring water upon the deity.
v) Building material is of Sand stone and Construction techniques used is of dry masonry type.
Ladu Baba Temple, Bhubaneswar
Ladu Baba Temple is a temple in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. It was built in the 13th Century AD and was formerly known as Kainchhi Temple.
LocationLadu Baba temple is located in the Uttara daraja, Badu Sahi, Old Town, Bhubaneswar. On the right side of Ratha road, leading from Lingaraj Market Complex Chowk to Badheibanka Chowk. It is 30.00 metres north of Chitrakarini temple and 70.00 metres south of Mohini temple. The temple is facing towards east. The Sanctum of the temple is empty. However, the sculptural embellishments in the outer walls suggest that the temple was originally dedicated to Lord Siva.
Tradition & legendsAccording to the local tradition the deity was rescued and shifted from Ravana’s Lanka to Ekamra Kshetra during the conflagration of Svarna Lanka on the eve of Rama-Ravana war.
Lakhesvara Siva Temple, BhubaneswarPresent Name- Lakhesvara Siva temple. (13th century AD.) Location: Lat 20° 14’ 33”N, Long 85° 50’ 17” E, Elev 60 ft. Approach- Lakhesvara Siva temple is located in the right side of the Ganges–Yamuna road, behind the Lingaraja market complex, Old town, Bhubaneswar. It is situated at a distance of 70 metres north east of Lingaraj temple and at a distance of 10 metres south of Gangesvara and Yamunesvara Siva temple across the road. The temple is facing towards the east.The enshrining deity is a Siva lingam within a circular yoni-pitha, which is 0.77 metres below the chandrasila.
Tradition & legendsThe local peoples are indifferent towards the historical legends of the temple. It is looked after by the members of the Ganga-Yamuna Sangathana. Address: Gangas–Yamuna Road, Old town, Bhubaneswar.
Source of InformationSaptaratha plan and anuratha paga is decorated with lotus design.
i) Historic significance: The local tradition attribute the temple to the Gangas
ii) Cultural significance: Sivaratri, Sankranti, Chandana utsav, Kartika-purnima, jalabhisheka etc. are celebrated in its premise.
iii) Social significance: The temple precinct is used for public meetings.
Lakhesvara Siva temple
Lakhesvara Siva temple is in Bhubaneswar in the Indian state of Orissa. The temple dates from the 13th century AD. The temple faces the east. The enshrining deity is a Siva lingam within a circular yoni-pitha, which is 0.77 m below the chandrasila. The local people are indifferent towards the legends of the temple. It is looked after by the Ganga-Yamuna Sangathana.
- Historic significance: The local tradition attribute the temple to the Gangas.
- Cultural significance: Sivaratri, Sankranti, Chandana utsav, Kartika-purnima,
- Social significance: The temple precinct is used for public meetings.
- Associational significance: Ganga-Yamuna Sangathana.
Laxmi Narayan TempleThis temple is located in the Kapileswar temple precinct. The enshrined deity is Laxmi- Narayana seated in padmasana over a lotus pedestal. Narayana has four arms holding conch in his upper right hand, a lotus in upper left hand and lower left hand is holding a mace. Laxmi is seating on his left lap. Both the images are crowned with Kirita mukuta. Laxmi is holding a lotus. The temple has a vimana in pidha order. On plan the temple measure 1.46 m in length and on its width it is merged with the kitchen walls. The total height of the temple is 3.24 m (bada 1.34 m, gandi 1.15 m, and mastaka 0.75 m). The cella measure 0.90 square m. There is a Garuda image over a pillar in front of the temple. The doorjamb measure 1.15 m in height x 0.50 m in width. This temple is closely attached with the pathway of the kitchen.
Lingaraja Temple, Bhubaneswar
Lingaraj Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Harihara, a form of Shiva and is one of the oldest temples of Bhubaneswar, the capital of the East Indian state of Odisha. The temple is the most prominent landmark of the Bhubaneswar city and one of the major tourist attractions of the state
The Lingaraja temple is the largest temple in Bhubaneswar. The central tower of the temple is 180 ft (55 m) tall. The temple represents the quintessence of the Kalinga Architecture and culminating the medieval stages of the architectural tradition at Bhubaneswar. The temple is believed to be built by the kings from the Somavamsi dynasty, with later additions from the Ganga rulers. The temple is built in the Deula style that has four components namely, vimana (structure containing the sanctum), jagamohana (assembly hall), natamandira (festival hall) and bhoga-mandapa (hall of offerings), each increasing in the height to its predecessor. The temple complex has 50 other shrines and is enclosed by a large compound wall.
Bhubaneswar is called the Ekamra Kshetra as the deity of Lingaraj was originally under a mango tree (Ekamra) as noted in Ekamra Purana, a 13th century Sanskrit treatise. The temple is active in worship practises, unlike most other temples in Bhubaneswar and Shiva is worshipped as Harihara, a combined form of Vishnu and Shiva. The temple has images of Vishnu, possibly because of the rising prominence of Jagannath cult emnating from the Ganga rulers who built the Jagannath Temple in Puri in the 12th century.
Lingaraja temple is maintained by the Temple Trust Board and the Archeological Survey of India (ASI). The temple has an average of 6,000 visitors per day and receives lakhs of visitors during festivals. Shivaratri festival is the major festival celebrated in the temple and event during 2012 witnessed 2 lakh visitors
HistoryLingaraj means "The king of Lingam", the symbol of Saivism. Shiva was worshipped as Kirtivasa and later as Harihara and is commonly referred as Tribhuvaneshwara (also called Bhubaneswar), the master of three worlds, namely, heaven, earth and netherworld). His consort is called Bhuvaneshvari.
The temple is more than 1100 years old, dating back in its present form to the last decade of the eleventh century, though there is evidence that part of the temple was built during the sixth century CE as the temple has been emphasized in some of the seventh century Sanskrit texts Fergusson believes the temple might have been initiated by Lelat Indra Kesari who reigned from 615 to 657 CE. The Assembly hall (jagamohana), sanctum and temple tower wer built during the eleventh century, while the Hall of offering (bhoga-mandapa) was built during the twelth century. The natamandira was built by the wife of Salini between 1099 and 1104 CE. By the time the Lingaraj temple was completely constructed, the Jagannath (form of Vishnu) cult had been growing in the region, which historians believe is evidenced by the co-existence of Vishnu and Shiva worship at the temple. The Ganga dynasty kings were ardent followers of Vaishnavism and built the Jagannath Temple at Puri in the 12th century.
The temple is believed to be built by the Somavanshi king Jajati Keshari, in 11th century CE Jajati Keshari had shifted his capital from Jajpur to Bhubaneswar which was referred to as Ekamra Kshetra in the Brahma Purana, an ancient scripture. One of the Somavamsi queens donated a village to the temple and the Brahmins attached to the temple received generous grants. An inscription from the Saka year 1094 (1172 CE) indicates gifts of gold coins to the temple by Rajaraja II Another inscription of Narasimha I from the 11th century indicates offer of beetel leaves as tambula to the presiding deity. Other stone inscriptions in the temple indicate royal grants from Chodaganga to village people.
Religious significanceBhubaneswar is called the Ekamra Kshetra as the deity of Lingaraj was originally under a mango tree (Ekamra). Ekamra Purana, a Sanskrit treatise of the 13th century mentions that the presiding deity was not seen as lingam (an aniconic form of Shiva) during the Satya and Treta yugas and only during the Dwapara and Kali yugas, it emerged as a lingam. The lingam in the temple is a natural unshaped stone that rests on a Sakti. Such a lingam is called Krutibasa or Swayambhu and is found in 64 places in different parts of India. With the advent of the Ganga dynasty in the early 12th century, who had Vaishnavaite orientation, a new movement started resulting in the synthesis of Saivism and Vaishnavism. The Ekamra was associated with Vaishanavite gods Krishna and Balaram during the period It is attributed the raising prominence of Jagannath cult that became predominant during the construction of the temple. The Ganges remodelled the temple and introduced certain Vaishnavite elements like images of Vaishnava Dwarapalas namely Jaya and Prachanda, Jagannatha, Lakshmi Narayan and Garuda were installed. Tulsi leaves, which are favoured by Vishnu, was used along with Bela leaves for the worship of Lingaraj. Lingaraja was thus came to be known as Harihara, a combination of Shiva and Vishnu. The flag of the temple was fixed to a Pinaka bow instead of trident usually found in Shiva temples. The temple priests also changed the mark in their forehead from horizontal to a "U" sign with a dotted middle line. The Ganges also introduced certain fairs like Swing festival, Sun worship and mock quarell between priests after chariot festival, similar to the practises in Jagannath Temple in Puri. The influence of the Ganges dynasty has led to a cosmopolitan culture, that has reduced the status of Lingaraja temple as a distinct Saivite shrine
Festival and worship practisesAs per Hindu legend, an underground river originating from the Lingaraj temple fills the Bindusagar Tank and the water is believed to heal physical and spiritual illness. The water from the tank is thus treated sacred and pilgrims take a holy dip during festive occasions. The central deity of the temple, Lingaraj, is worshipped both as Shiva and Vishnu. The harmony between the two sects of Hinduism, Saivism and Vaishanvism, is seen in this temple where the deity is worshipped as Harihara, a combined form of Vishnu and Shiva.
The Lingaraja temple is active in worship practises, unlike the other ancient temples of Bhubaneshwar which are not active worship centres. Non Hindus are not allowed inside the temple, but it can be viewed from the viewing platform located outside the temple. The viewing platform and the back of the temple can be reached via a lineway located to the right of the main entrance of the temple. Sanctity of the temple is maitained by disallowing dogs, unbathed visitors, mensturating women and families that encountered birth or death in the preceding 12 days. In case of a foreign tresspass, the temple follows a purification ritual and dumping of prasad (food offering) in a well.
Food offeringsThe image of Lingaraja is abluted with water (called mahasnana) several times a day and decorated with flowers, sandal paste and cloth. Hemlock or hemlock flowers which are generally offered in other Shiva temples is not allowed in the Lingaraja temple. Bilva leaves (Aegle marmelos) and tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) are used in daily worship. Offerings of cooked rice, curries and sweet-meats are displayed in the bhogamandapa (hall of offering) and the divinity is invoked to accept them amidst scores of chanting of Sanskrit texts. Coconut, ripe plantains and kora-khai are generally offered to Lingaraja by the pilgrims. Bhang beverage is offered to Lingaraja by some devotees especially on the day of Pana Sankranti (Oriya new year).
The Lingaraja temple is open from 6 a.m. to about 9 p.m. and is intermittently closed during bhoga (food offering) to the deity. During early morning, lamps in the cella are lit to awaken Lingaraja from his sleep, ablution is performed, followed by adoration and arati (waving of light). The temple is closed at about 12 p.m. until about 3.30 P.M. A ceremony known as Mahasnana (ablution) is performed once the doors are closed, followed by pouring of Panchamrita (a mixture of milk, curdled milk, clarified butter, honey and ghee) upon the deity for purification. At about 1 P.M., a ripe plantain is divided into two, one half is offered to Sun god and the other half to Dwarapala (the guarding deities in the doorway). Between 1.00 and 1.30 P.M. the food offering called Ballabha Bhoga (breakfast containing curdled milk, curd and vegetables) is offered to the deity. The consecrated food is carried to the temple of Parvati and placed before her as an offering, a practice commonly observed by the orthodox Hindu housewives. At about 2 P.M., the Sakala Dhupa (morning's offering of food) takes place. After the food is offered to Lingaraja, the offerings are carried to the temple of Parvati to serve her. An offering called Bhanda Dhupa is carried out at 3.30 P.M. at the hall of offering. This food is later offered by the inmates to the pilgrims as Mahaprasad.
A light refreshment known as Ballabha Dhupa is offered to the deity at around 4.30 P.M. At around 5 P.M., Dwipahar Dhupa (mid day meal) is offered. At around 7 P.M., another offering called Palia Badu is placed before the deity. Sandhya arati (waving of lights in the evening) is performed during that time. Another light meal called Sahana Dhupa is offered at around 8:30 P.M. After the meals, the ceremony of waving light (arati) is performed before the deity. At 9.30 P.M, the last service of the day, Bada Singara (the great decoration) is performed when the deity is decorated with flowers and ornaments after which a light food offering is made. A wooden palanquin is laid in the room, incense is lighted, drinking water is served and prepared betel is placed. Panchabaktra Mahadeva comes to the palanquin and returns to his own abode after the arati is performed. This is a bronze image of Mahadeva having five faces and Parvati in his lap. Each of these ceremonies is accompanied by ritual observances and recitations of mantras (Sanskrit texts) specified for each occasion.
Om Tat Sat
(My humble salutations to the great devotees , wikisources and Pilgrimage tourist guide for the collection )